FAQ/Walkthrough by ruchir1992
Microsoft Train Simulator on SuperCheats.com
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(                      Train Simulator - FAQ/WALKTHROUGH                    )
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|__   __|      (_)        / ____(_)               | |     | |
   | |_ __ __ _ _ _ __   | (___  _ _ __ ___  _   _| | __ _| |_ ___  _ __
   | | '__/ _` | | '_ \   \___ \| | '_ ` _ \| | | | |/ _` | __/ _ \| '__|
   | | | | (_| | | | | |  ____) | | | | | | | |_| | | (_| | || (_) | |
   |_|_|  \__,_|_|_| |_| |_____/|_|_| |_| |_|\__,_|_|\__,_|\__\___/|_|






====================================
     TrainSim FAQ/Walkthrough      |
====================================
Written by  : Ruchirkc	           |
Last Updated: 13th March 2007      |
Platform    : Windows-PC           |
Version     : 1.0 Final            |
E-Mail	    : ruchirkc@yahoo.co.in |
====================================


=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


+----------+
|+--------+|
||CONTENTS||
|+--------+|
+----------+

PART: 1 - INTRODUCTION
======================


PART: 2 - GETTING STARTED
=========================

1. Installing Train Simulator
	a. Setup Choices
2. Getting Train Simulator Updates
3. Starting Train Simulator
4. Making Train Simulator Really Perform
	a. Improving both quality and performance
	b. Making a tradeoff between quality and performance
5. Train Simulator Quick-Start
6. Keyboard and Mouse Commands

PART: 3 - THE HOME SCREEN
=========================

1. Home Screen Options
2. Introductory Train Ride
3. Tutorials
4. Drive a train
5. Continue Saved Activity
6. Options
7. Getting Help

PART: 4 - FINDING INFORMATION
=============================

1. The Engineer's Handbook
2. Train Simulator Help
3. Help While You're Driving
4. Further Information and Assistance

PART: 5 - TOOLS FOR DRIVING
===========================

1. Using Views
2. The Views
3. The Realism Options
4. The Driving Aids
5. The Operations Notebook
6. The Train Operations Window

PART: 6 - TRAIN BASICS
======================

1. Three Types of Locomotives
	a. Steam Locomotives
	b. Electric Locomotives
	c. Diesel Locomotives
2. General Requirements for Train Handling
3. Terms to Know
4. Slowing and Stopping the Train
	a. Train Brakes
	b. Locomotive Brakes
5. Units of Measure

PART: 7 - HOW TO DRIVE A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE
=========================================

1. What is a Steam Locomotive?
2. Using the Locomoive Controls
	a. Engineer's Cotrols
	b. Fireman's Controls
3. Operating a Steam Locomotive
	a. Moving the Train
	b. Going Uphill
	c. Going Downhill
	d. Stopping a Train
4. Troubleshooting
5. Fling Scotsman
	a. Flying Scotsman Specifications
6.
Gölsdorf Series 380
	a. Gölsdorf Series 380 Specifications

PART: 8 - HOW TO DRIVE A DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE
==========================================

1. What is a Diesel Locomotive?
2. Using the Diesel-Electric Locomotive
3. Operating a Diesel-Electric Locomotive
	a. Moving the Train
	b. Slowing or Stopping
	c. Reversing
	d. Blending the Brakes
	e. Wheelslip and Sanding
	f. Controlling in-train Forces
	g. Throttle Handling
4. Dash 9
	a. Dash 9 Specifications
5. GP38-2
	a. GP38-2 Specifications
6. KIHA 31
	a. KIHA 31 Specifications

PART: 9 - HOW TO DRIVE AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
=============================================

1. What is an Electric Locomotive
2. Using Electric Locomotive Controls & Gauges
3. Operating an Electric Locomotive
	a. Moving the Train
	b. Stopping the Train
4. The 2000 Series
	a. 2000 Series Specifications
5. The 7000 LSE Series
	a. 7000 LSE Series Specifications
6. Amtrak Acela Express
	a. Amtrak AcelaSM Express Specifications
7. Acela HHP-8
	a. Amtrak AcelaSM HHP-8 Locomotive Specifications

PART: 10 - OPERATIONS
=====================

1. Passenger Operations
	a. Following the Timetable
	b. Stopping at Stations
2. Freight Operations
	a. Following the Work Order
3. Manual Switching
4. Identifying Locomotives, Cars, Sidings, and Station Platforms
5. Coupling and Uncouplinh
6. Using Multiple Units
7. Refueling
8. Preventing Accidents at Road Crossings
9. Bells, Whistles, and Horns
10. Trackside Signage
11. Signaling
	a. Learning the Signals
	b. Obeying Signals
12. Speed Limits
	a. Types of Speed Limits

PART: 11 - THE ACTIVITES
========================

1. The Goal
2. Activity Types
3. Before the Activity Begins
4. During the Activity
	a. What You're Evaluated on
	b. Using Driving Aids
	c. Using the Operations Notebook
	d. Saving an Activity
5. After the Activity Ends

PART: 12 - THE ROUTES
=====================

1. Marias Pass
2. Northeast Corridor
3. Innsbruck-St.Anton
4. Tokyo-Hakone
5. Hisatsu Line

PART: 13 - THE EDITORS AND TOOLS
================================

1. Before You Begin
2. The Editors and Tools

PART: 14 - CREDITS, COPYRIGHT INFO, CONTACT ME ETC
==================================================

1. Wanted
2. Contact Me
3. Credits/Thanks
4. My Other FAQs
5. Version History
6. Copyright Information


======================================================
|             PART: 1 - INTRODUCTION                 |
======================================================

COMMING SOON!


======================================================
|             PART: 2 - GETTING STARTED              |
======================================================

Whether you’re a rookie, a hard-core gamer, or a real-life train engineer,
you probably can’t wait to climb into the cab and drive off into the sunset.
Before you start using Microsoft Train Simulator though, there are a few
things you need to do. This section tells you how to get started.

+----------------------------+
|+--------------------------+|
||INSTALLING TRAIN SIMULATOR||
|+--------------------------+|
+----------------------------+

[1] Turn on your computer and start your Microsoft Windows® operating system
(Windows 95 or later).
[2] Insert Train Simulator Disc 1 into your CD-ROM drive.
[3] Follow the instructions on the screen.


If your computer doesn’t support automatic installation, follow these steps:
============================================================================
[1] Click Start on the taskbar.
[2] Point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
[3] Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
[4] On the Install/Uninstall tab, click Install.
	-or-
Click Add New Programs, and then click the CD or Floppy button.
[5] Follow the instructions that appear on your screen.

+-------------+
|SETUP CHOICES|
+-------------+

[*] Default: Choose this option to install all the software and all six
routes.

[*] Custom: Choose this option if you need to conserve hard disk space on
your computer. You can pick just the routes you want installed on your hard
disk and available in the game. You can always install other routes later.

Note: Installation may require one or more of the two Train Simulator compact
discs, depending on the options you choose.

+---------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------+|
||GETTING TRAIN SIMULATOR UPDATES||
|+-------------------------------+|
+---------------------------------+

Occasionally Microsoft releases late-breaking updates about its products, so
it’s always a good idea to check the Web site for updates. Typically you
install the product from the CD-ROM first (as described above), and then
install any update that you have downloaded from the Web site.

If there are any Train Simulator updates, you can find them at:
http://www.microsoft.com/games/trainsim

+--------------------------+
|+------------------------+|
||STARTING TRAIN SIMULATOR||
|+------------------------+|
+--------------------------+

[*] Click Start, point to Programs, point to Microsoft Games, point to Train
Simulator, then click Train Simulator.

	-or-

[*] Double-click the Train Simulator icon on the Windows desktop.

+---------------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------+|
||MAKING TRAIN SIMULATOR REALLY PERFORM||
|+-------------------------------------+|
+---------------------------------------+

When talking about a simulation’s graphics, quality refers to how real the
images look on the screen, and performance refers to how quickly and smoothly
the images move. Higher quality typically means decreased performance, since
displaying complex, richly detailed, three-dimensional graphics puts a heavy
load on your system. If you’re not seeing the graphics quality and
performance you expect, this section explains some choices and tradeoffs you
can make to optimize your experience.

+--------------------------------------+
|Improving both quality and performance|
+--------------------------------------+

To get maximum quality and performance, consider the following options:

Shut down other applications
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
When using Train Simulator, you probably won’t need other applications such
as word processors and e-mail programs, so close them to free up more of your
computer’s brainpower for Train Simulator.

Upgrade your graphics card
""""""""""""""""""""""""""
3-D graphics card technology is advancing at a tremendous rate. Newer
graphics cards, which operate faster and have more on-board RAM, can improve
graphics  performance remarkably.

Make sure you:
""""""""""""""
[*] Set the display options in Train Simulator to take full advantage of it
(see "Change display options" in the "Making a tradeoff between quality and
performance" section below).

[*] Download the latest drivers from the manufacturer's Web site.

If you have problems getting your 3-D card to work properly, make sure you've
 read the Train Simulator Readme file (located in the Train Simulator
directory on your hard drive) and the card manufacturer’s documentation.

Get more RAM
""""""""""""
Random access memory (RAM) is your computer’s short-term memory. Generally,
the more RAM there is, the faster your computer’s brain (the CPU) can
process data. Your computer must have at least 32 megabytes (MB) of RAM to
run Train Simulator.

Get a faster processor
""""""""""""""""""""""
Although Train Simulator will run on a Pentium II 266 machine, a Pentium
II-350 or faster processor is recommended for optimal performance.

+-------------------------------------------------+
|Making a tradeoff between quality and performance|
+-------------------------------------------------+

Choosing between quality and performance depends on what you want to do. If
you want to read signs and billboards as you drive the 7000 LSE Series
through downtown Tokyo, then you’re probably willing to sacrifice a little
performance for a better view. But if you want to hurtle the AcelaSM Express
along the Northeast Corridor in a snowstorm, then smooth movement of the
train and the cab controls will take precedence over scenery details. No
matter what kind of hardware you have, you can make tradeoffs between
graphics quality and performance.

Try the following options to find the balance between quality and performance
that’s right for your needs:

Change the resolution
"""""""""""""""""""""
Depending on your video card and monitor, you can run Train Simulator at a
variety of screen resolutions. The software is designed to run at a minimum
resolution of 640 x 480. If your system can handle it, a resolution of
1024x768 is optimal. Note, though, that as you increase resolution to see
more detail, you may notice a decrease in performance. Experiment with
different resolutions to find the best combination of detail and performance
for your system. For more information about adjusting the screen resolution
on your computer, on the Windows Start menu, click Help, and look up
"resolution" in the index.

Change display options
""""""""""""""""""""""
One way to improve performance is to change the display options in Train
Simulator. Do this by clicking Options on the Home screen. If you are
driving, first exit the Activity by pressing ESC and then choosing Exit
Activity from the menu that appears.

Change sound options
""""""""""""""""""""
Depending on your machine, changing sound options may improve performance. To
change sound options, click the Sound tab on the Options screen. If you are
driving, first exit the Activity by pressing ESC and then choosing Exit
Activity from the menu that appears.

Monitor the frame rate
""""""""""""""""""""""
Monitoring the frame rate (the number of times the screen is redrawn each
second) is an easy way to assess performance. Press SHIFT+Z to display the
frame-rate counter. After you’ve tried the options listed above, check the
frame rate to see whether it has improved. But remember: it’s how the
simulation looks and feels to you that matters most.

Experiment!
"""""""""""
The best way to make Train Simulator really fly down the track is to
experiment. Keep testing the performance against the graphic and sound
settings to get the configuration that works for you. Don’t forget to read
the Readme file for additional tips.

+-----------------------------+
|+---------------------------+|
||TRAIN SIMULATOR QUICK START||
|+---------------------------+|
+-----------------------------+

To get the most out of Microsoft Train Simulator it’s best to prepare. My
recommendation is that you:

1. Read the Engineer’s Handbook.
2. Take the Introductory Train Ride (click the button from the Home screen).
3. Go through the onscreen Tutorials (click the button from the Home screen).

But if you can’t wait to get into the cab of your favorite locomotive, here
are the bare essentials to get you driving quickly.

To get started quickly:
"""""""""""""""""""""""
[1] Install and start Microsoft Train Simulator using the instructions at the
beginning of this chapter.
[2] When you see the Home screen, click Drive a Train.
[3] Select a route from the Routes list that appears.

A description of the selected route displays. If you’re not sure which route
to pick, the following table shows the highlights, and Part: 11, The Routes,
has even more detail.

Route 		Location 		Length 		Highlights
"""""		""""""""		""""""		""""""""""
Northeast 	Eastern United States 	133 miles 	High-speed inter-
Corridor 	seaboard 		(214 km)	urban corridor
							linking major U.S.
							cities

Marias Pass 	Montana, United States 	152 miles 	Steep grades,
					(245 km)	beautiful Rocky
							Mountain scenery

Tokyo-Hakone 	Tokyo region, Japan 	55 miles 	High-speed urban
					(88 km) 	corridor leading to
							countryside near Mt.
							Fuji

Hisatsu line 	Southwestern Japan, 	53 miles 	Historic and scenic
		island of Kyushu 	(86 km)		Japanese route

Innsbruck– 	Tyrolean region 	63 miles 	1920s-era Orient-
St. Anton 	of Austria 		(101 km)	Express route through
							the Alps

Settle & 	Northwest 		72 miles 	1920s-era rural route
Carlisle line 	England 		(116 km) 	featuring famous
							Flying Scotsman


[4] Select an Activity from the Activities list.

If you just want to get the feel of driving the train, select the Explore the
Route Activity. You won’t have to follow any rules, and you can move the
switches to explore any stretch of track that strikes your fancy. You can
select the locomotive you want here, too. If you select any other Activity, a
description explains what your assignment is. The Activity ends when you've
completed your assignment, and you’ll get feedback on how you did. You might
want to have a look at PART: 9, Operations, before you operate a train.

[5] Click the Start button in the lower-right corner of the screen, and go!

For more information on operating locomotives see the How to Drive...Steam,
Diesel and Electric locomotive chapters.

+-----------------------------+
|+---------------------------+|
||KEYBOARD AND MOUSE COMMANDS||
|+---------------------------+|
+-----------------------------+

You’ll find a list of important key commands in the online Help, on the Key
Commands tab of the Operations Notebook (press F11), and on the Quick
Reference Card included in the Microsoft Train Simulator box. These commands
help you perform such tasks as operating locomotive controls, changing Views,
displaying Driving Aids, and so on.


======================================================
|             PART: 3 - THE HOME SCREEN              |
======================================================

The Home Screen is the point of departure for all of your Microsoft Train
Simulator adventures. This is where you can decide whether you’re going to
drive or ride, race down the track for fun or with purpose, arrange your
settings, and more.

+---------------------+
|+-------------------+|
||HOME SCREEN OPTIONS||
|+-------------------+|
+---------------------+

From the Home Screen you can:

[*] Sit back and just ride a train so you can get the feel of the trains and
the routes.
[*] Take a tutorial to familiarize yourself with the controls of each type of
locomotive.
[*] Operate your own train, with your choice of locomotive, route, weather,
and so on.
[*] Change your settings for best performance on your computer’s system.

Below are the details of the Home Screen options.

+-------------------------+
|+-----------------------+|
||INTRODUCTORY TRAIN RIDE||
|+-----------------------+|
+-------------------------+

When you choose Introductory Train Ride, Train Simulator takes the controls.
Sit back and watch while Train Simulator does the driving, shifting views as
you travel. This is a great way to familiarize you with the routes and you'll
hear a brief commentary as you ride.

To take an introductory train ride:

[1] On the Home screen, choose Introductory Train Ride
[2] Choose a route
[3] Select the options you want

Change Views: By default, you see a new view every 30 seconds or so, so that
you can watch your train from several different angles. Or you can select a
particular view by pressing the desired View key (the number keys 1 through
5). If you’d rather be able to choose the view you want and stay in that
view, deselect Change Views. (For more information on views, see the “Using
Views” section in PART: 5 - Tools for Driving.)

[4] Begin the introductory train ride by clicking Start

The introductory train ride ends automatically when the train reaches the end
of its route. To end the introductory train ride and return to the Home
screen, press ESC.

+-----------+
|+---------+|
||TUTORIALS||
|+---------+|
+-----------+

The Train Simulator Tutorials can teach you the skills to become an expert
engineer. They also include tips for safe, speedy, and efficient train
operation, and cautions about railroading hazards and errors.

To select a Tutorial"
[1] On the Home screen, click Tutorials.
[2] Select an electric, diesel, or steam lesson.

Note: It’s a good idea to do the lessons in the order they’re presented.

[3] Click Start.

+---------------+
|+-------------+|
||DRIVE A TRAIN||
|+-------------+|
+---------------+

When you’ve completed the tutorials, you’ll be ready for the challenge of
driving one of the Train Simulator locomotives, with your choice of settings,
routes, and types of service.

To drive the trains:

[1] On the Home screen, choose Drive a Train
The Route and Activity screen appears.

[2] Choose the route you wish to drive

The list of Activities changes depending on what route you choose.

[3] Choose an Activity

If you choose the Activity named “Explore the Route,” you can select the
locomotive, weather, time of day, and so on. Then you can drive the route
without any rules, switching the tracks yourself to go where you please.

If you choose any other Activity, you will have an assignment to complete,
and all the conditions (such as locomotive, weather, and so on) are
pre-determined. There will be other traffic on the line, and you need to
follow the rules of the railroad.

[4] Click Start

For more information about selecting and completing Activities, see PART: 12
- The Activities.

+-------------------------+
|+-----------------------+|
||CONTINUE SAVED ACTIVITY||
|+-----------------------+|
+-------------------------+

Any time you exit an Activity without completing it, you have the option to
save the Activity. You can resume any saved Activity.

To resume a saved Activity:

[1] On the Home screen, choose Continue Saved Activity.
[2] From the Saved Activities list, choose the one you want.

For more information about saving and resuming Activities, see the online
Help by pressing the F1 key.

*NOTE: If you want to save the Activity without interrupting your run, just
press the "Quick Save" key (F2). Quick-saving is a smart thing to do every
now and then. If you make a mistake (such as lose control of the train while
going down a hill), you can re-start at the point where you last Quick-saved
instead of having to start the entire Activity again from the beginning.

+---------+
|+-------+|
||OPTIONS||
|+-------+|
+---------+

To get the best performance with your system, you may want to adjust some of
the Train Simulator options.

To change your Train Simulator options:

[1] On the Home screen, choose Options.
[2] On the Options screen, choose from the following tabs:
	[*] General
	[*] Keyboard
	[*] Sound
	[*] Display
	[*] Advanced Display
[3] Change the options as desired.
[4] To save your options and exit from the Options screen, click Save.

Since the Options button is on every screen (before you begin driving), you
will be returned to the screen from which you selected the Options button.

	–or–

To undo changes and return to the default Train Simulator settings, click
Restore Defaults. For more information about Train Simulator settings and how
to get the best system performance, see the online Help by pressing the F1
key.

+--------------+
|+------------+|
||GETTING HELP||
|+------------+|
+--------------+

Pause your mouse over any item on any screen and see a helpful tip at the
bottom of the screen. For complete instructions on using any screen, click
Help at the top of the screen or press F1. See PART: 4 - Finding Information,
for more tips on getting assistance.


======================================================
|           PART: 4 - FINDING INFORMATION            |
======================================================

You can get great information and assistance in many places in Microsoft
Train Simulator, so you can spend more time driving trains—and less time
figuring out how. This section helps you find the information you’re looking
for.

+-------------------------+
|+-----------------------+|
||THE ENGINEER'S HANDBOOK||
|+-----------------------+|
+-------------------------+

This Engineer’s Handbook gives you an overview of Train Simulator with tips
and instruction about railroading, the locomotives, and the routes.

+----------------------+
|+--------------------+|
||TRAIN SIMULATOR HELP||
|+--------------------+|
+----------------------+

Want to learn about Train Simulator commands and procedures? Train Simulator
locomotives? Railroad terminology? Look in Train Simulator Help, which you
can access by pressing the F1 key or clicking the Help button in the
upper-right corner of the pre-driving screens.

+---------------------------+
|+-------------------------+|
||HELP WHILE YOU’RE DRIVING||
|+-------------------------+|
+---------------------------+

In addition to the Train Simulator Help system, you can get helpful
information as you’re operating a train.

Rollover Help 			Pause your mouse over any item on any screen
				and a helpful tip appears at the bottom of
				the screen.

Labels 				Place your mouse pointer over a control or
				instrument and its identification label
				appears. If the Controls and Gauges Display
				is turned on, a description of that control
				appears as well.

Controls & Gauges Display 	Place your mouse pointer over a control or
				instrument and its name, function, and
				setting appears in a small box. If the
				display is turned off, only the name appears.

Driving Aids 			There are a number of driving aids that give
				you information you need to operate your
				locomotive safely and efficiently. For
				example, the Track Monitor shows you signals,
				speed limits, and so on. For more information
				about the driving aids, see PART: 5 - Tools
				for Driving.

Operations Notebook 		The Operations Notebook contains all the data
				you need to complete an Activity. You’ll
				find your Activity Briefing, a list of key
				commands, procedures for operating your
				locomotive, and a summary of your progress on
				the Activity. For more information about the
				Operations Notebook, see Part: 10,
				Operations.

+------------------------------------+
|+----------------------------------+|
||FURTHER INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE||
|+----------------------------------+|
+------------------------------------+

On the Train Simulator Web site you can find news, tips, articles, reference
material, and links to other interesting simulation and railroading sites.

The Train Simulator Web site is located at:
http://www.microsoft.com/games/trainsim

The Train Simulator Readme file contains late-breaking information about
Train Simulator. It’s a good idea to read the Readme file to check for any
known compatibility problems with hardware you’re using. You can find the
Readme file in the folder where you installed Train Simulator on your hard
disk drive.

If you’re having problems running Train Simulator, you can contact Microsoft
Technical Support using the information in the Technical Support topic in
online Help.

Graphics Troubleshooting: To solve certian kinds of graphics issues you can
use the Launcher, located in the directory where you installed Train
Simulator:

[1] Double-click Launcher.exe
[2] Choose Troubleshooting from the menu that appears.


======================================================
|            PART: 5 - TOOLS FOR DRIVING             |
======================================================

In the real world of trains you can feel the wind on your face and the cars
move from side to side. In Microsoft Train Simulator, since you won’t have
such cues, we give you a few tools to help you get your bearings. The driving
aids, Realism Options, and various Views are designed to do this. You can
also use these tools to perform tasks from outside the cab—you don’t have to
actually be sitting in the cab of the train to drive it.

+-------------+
|+-----------+|
||USING VIEWS||
|+-----------+|
+-------------+

You can use the keyboard to get all kinds of visual angles of the train—both
internal and external. Use the ARROW keys to look left, right, up or down, to
pan or to zoom. Add SHIFT to pan or zoom quickly.

*NOTE: All key commands referred to in this chapter are used on the main part
of the keyboard, not on the numeric keypad.

+--------+
|CAB VIEW|
+--------+

(1 key)

The view from inside the cab. In steam trains, you can also “stick your head
out” of the open sides of the train. To stick your head out the window
(forward), use the UP ARROW. To stick your head out the window (backward),
use the DOWN ARROW.

+-------------+
|EXTERNAL VIEW|
+-------------+

(2 key)

This view begins at the lead locomotive, but you can move the view along the
train.

[*] To zoom in or out, press the UP or DOWN ARROW keys.
[*] To rotate the view, press LEFT or RIGHT ARROW keys.
[*] To raise or lower the view, press CTRL+UP ARROW or CTRL+DOWN ARROW.
[*] To center the view on another car, press CTRL+LEFT ARROW or CTRL+RIGHT
ARROW.

+---------------+
|EXTERNAL VIEW 2|
+---------------+

(3 key)

This view begins at the rear of the train, but you can move the view along
the train.

+--------------+
|TRACKSIDE VIEW|
+--------------+

(4 key)

This view puts you in the role of an onlooker watching the train from the
trackside. As the train passes you, your point of view jumps automatically to
a new point down the track where the train is once again approaching you.
Press the 4 key again for a different trackside view.

+--------------+
|PASSENGER VIEW|
+--------------+

(5 key)

Look inside a passenger car from the point of view of a seated passenger. Use
the ARROW keys or hold down your right mouse button and drag the cursor to
look around.

+------------+
|COUPLER VIEW|
+------------+

(6 key)

This is a good view for focusing on the front or rear coupler of the train
during the coupling process. You can also see the distance between the train
and the unit you’re coupling to. Use UP and DOWN arrows to zoom in and out.

+---------+
|YARD VIEW|
+---------+

(7 key)

A view looking directly downward from high above your train. Use this view in
freight yards.


For a complete list of all the view commands, see the Quick Reference Card,
the Key Commands tab of the Operations Notebook (press F11) or the online
Help (press F1).

+---------------------+
|+-------------------+|
||THE REALISM OPTIONS||
|+-------------------+|
+---------------------+

Realism Options make your train experience more—or less—realistic. With some
of the Realism Options, you don’t have to worry about every single one of the
requirements of operating a train. With other Realism Options you can
heighten your experience by setting the options closer to those of a real
train.

+---------------------------------+
|To turn Realism Options on or off|
+---------------------------------+

While driving, use the key command (given below).
–or–
[1] Before driving, from any screen, click Options.
[2] Click the General tab.
[3] In the Realism section, make your selections.
[4] Click Save.

Below are the Realism Options and their key commands.

+---------------+
|Simple Controls|
+---------------+

With Simple Controls you can control the movement of the train with only
three key commands:

[*] D key=Increase power
[*] A key=Decrease power
[*] S key=Change direction

Some of the standard controls necessary to completing an Activity still work
even if you use the Simple Controls feature. For example, the Train
Operations window still functions, and you can still blow your whistle or
horn. But some of the other tasks are handled automatically.

+-----------+
|Derailments|
+-----------+

If you select this option, you train will derail in the same circumstances it
would in the real world, for instance if you take a curve too fast. If you
don’t select this option, your train will never derail. Select or clear this
option from the General tab of the Options screen.

+-------+
|Alerter|
+-------+

Some of the locomotives in Train Simulator have Alerters, which make sure
that the engineer remains awake and alert while driving. The Alerter sounds
an alarm if the train’s controls are not operated during a 25-second period.
The engineer must respond to this alarm within 15 seconds or the brakes are
applied and the power shuts down (electric trains only), bringing the train
to a halt. You can turn the Alerter feature OFF if you wish. Select or clear
this option from the General tab of the Options screen.

+--------------------------------+
|Automatic Fireman (steam trains)|
+--------------------------------+

The computer-controlled fireman attempts to keep the boiler at a high
pressure at all times, in order to respond to any unforeseen demands from
you, the engineer. But this is not very efficient in terms of fuel and water
usage, so you may want to take over the role yourself. To take over the
fireman’s role, turn the Fireman feature OFF at the General tab of the
Options screen.

+------------------+
|+----------------+|
||THE DRIVING AIDS||
|+----------------+|
+------------------+

Driving aids help you figure out your next move or see what your progress is
so far. You can toggle them on or off.

To turn driving aids on or off:

While driving, use the key command (listed below) for the driving aid you
want.
–or–
[1] From any screen, click Options
[2] Click the General tab
[3] In the Driving Aids section, make your selections
[4] Click Save

*NOTE: You can drag the driving aids windows around the screen with your
mouse. Once you position a window, the window returns to that same location
if you close it and then open it again.

+------------------------------------+
|Controls and Gauges driving aid (F3)|
+------------------------------------+

As you move your mouse pointer over a control or instrument, the name and an
explanation of its function and what it is doing at the moment appears in a
small box. If the box is turned off, a short label appears to tell you the
name of the control or instrument.

+------------------+
|Track Monitor (F4)|
+------------------+

The Track Monitor shows the next 3 miles (5 kilometers) of track in front of
you.

+---------------------------+
|Heads Up Display (HUD) (F5)|
+---------------------------+

The Heads Up Display (HUD) shows important information that you can use to
drive the train from any view. It’s particularly useful when you’re not in
Cab view, but you may find that its digital display of crucial information so
useful that you want to display it in Cab view too.

+-------------------------------+
|Cycle station/siding names (F6)|
+-------------------------------+

You can view the names of the stations with this feature. This is useful for
slowing and stopping operations.

+----------------------+
|Cycle car numbers (F7)|
+----------------------+

You can view a train’s car number. This is useful for coupling.

+--------------------------+
|Switching driving aid (F8)|
+--------------------------+

The Switching driving aid displays the status of both the switch immediately
in front of the train and the switch immediately behind the train. If these
switches are not under the control of the dispatcher, you can set either
switch by clicking one of the arrows in the Switching driving aid or by
pressing the G key (front switch) or SHIFT+G (rear switch).

+--------------------------+
|Next Station Display (F10)|
+--------------------------+

During a passenger run you are required to keep to a Timetable. The Next
Station Display helps you out by showing your scheduled arrival and departure
time for the next station on your route. After you arrive at a station, your
actual times are tracked and displayed next to the scheduled times. The Next
Station Display shows the current time of day and the distance remaining
until the next scheduled stop.

*NOTE: You reach 0 (zero) distance when your train reaches the end of the
platform, which is usually not the optimal location for passenger dropoff.
The ideal stopping location depends on the size of your train; the
locomotive/power car may have to be stopped beyond the platform. The Next
Station Display shows only the station you are at (or have just departed
from) and the next upcoming station; the full Timetable is available in the
Operations Notebook (F11).

When you begin loading and unloading passengers (press the ENTER key to do
this), watch the Loading Time display to see how quickly passengers are
getting on and off the train. The loading time is longer if any passenger
cars are not next to the platform during loading and unloading. Loading Time
is based on the train’s location and the number of passengers at the station.
When you press the ENTER key, the Loading Time starts counting down. When the
Loading Time reaches 0, you must wait for the “OK to proceed” whistle,
buzzer, or radio message before you depart. Moving the train before you
receive permission is considered an early departure, and is logged as an
infraction in the Activity Evaluation.

*NOTE: You don’t actually see passengers loading and unloading (which is
sad). The Next Station Display driving aid displays your only indication of
the passenger loading and unloading process.

+-----------------------------+
|Hiding all driving aids (F12)|
+-----------------------------+

To close all your driving aids windows at once, press F12. This is useful if
you want an unobstructed view of all the controls in your cab, without having
to close the windows one at a time.

+-------------------------+
|+-----------------------+|
||THE OPERATIONS NOTEBOOK||
|+-----------------------+|
+-------------------------+

The Operations Notebook is a great tool to use when you want to complete an
Activity. To display it at any time, just press F11. There are six tabs:

Tab 		Contents
"""		""""""""
Briefing 	A detailed description of your assignment.

Timetable 	The schedule you must follow in the current Activity. Most
		freight Activities don’t have timetables.

Work Order 	A list of tasks to perform during the current Activity. Most
		passenger Activities don’t have work orders.

Evaluation 	A summary of your performance in the Activity so far.

Procedures 	Operating instructions for the current locomotive.

Key Commands 	The complete list of keyboard commands for the type of train
		(steam, diesel, or electric) that you’re
		driving.


To navigate from tab to tab, simply click a tab with the mouse.

To close the Operations Notebook, press F11 again, or click the X in the
upper-right corner.

To learn more about using the Operations Notebook, see the onscreen Help
(press F1).

+-----------------------------+
|+---------------------------+|
||THE TRAIN OPERATIONS WINDOW||
|+---------------------------+|
+-----------------------------+

You set and release hand brakes, monitor fuel consumption, and perform
coupling operations using the Train Operations window. Press F9 to open the
window.


======================================================
|               PART: 6 - TRAIN BASICS               |
======================================================

Before you start barreling down the track, we recommend you learn the basics
of operating one of the three types of locomotives in Microsoft® Train
Simulator. These trains are modeled so closely on real trains that the
challenges are significant, and a little preparation can go a long way.

+----------------------------+
|+--------------------------+|
||THREE TYPES OF LOCOMOTIVES||
|+--------------------------+|
+----------------------------+

You can drive three types of locomotives in Train Simulator: steam, electric,
and diesel.

+-----------------+
|Steam locomotives|
+-----------------+

Flying Scotsman and the Gölsdorf 380 are steam locomotives, fueled by coal.

You can burn almost anything in a steam locomotive, but engines are typically
designed to burn a particular type of fuel, such as coal, wood, or oil. The
fuel is used to heat water, creating the steam that powers the locomotive.
While steam engines were the transportation of choice in the 19th century and
early 20th century, they were largely supplanted by the more efficient diesel
locomotive.

+--------------------+
|Electric locomotives|
+--------------------+

The Amtrak AcelaSM Express power car, AcelaSM HHP-8, the 2000 Series, and the
7000 LSE Series are electric locomotives, powered by electricity supplied
from overhead power lines, also known as catenary.

Electric locomotives use electricity to turn the wheels. The motors are very
efficient, fast, reliable, clean, and cheap to operate, but they require an
electrified third rail or overhead electric lines, which are expensive to
install and maintain over long distances. Electric locomotives work
particularly well for commuter services, where high speeds and quick
acceleration are important.

+------------------+
|Diesel locomotives|
+------------------+

The Dash 9, GP38-2, and KIHA 31 are diesel locomotives, powered by diesel
fuel.

Diesel engines use diesel fuel to power the train. They replaced steam
locomotives for long-haul heavy freight operations because they are cheaper
to buy, operate, and maintain. Unlike steam locomotives, diesel locomotives
can be coupled together and operated by one crew in the lead locomotive,
allowing efficient hauling of heavy loads over long distances. (When
locomotives are coupled together in this fashion, they are said to be in a
"multiple-unit" consist, or "MUed together").

+-----------------------------------------+
|+---------------------------------------+|
||GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TRAIN HANDLING||
|+---------------------------------------+|
+-----------------------------------------+

Proper train handling is all about safety and efficiency. To successfully
operate a train, you must use the right combination of the throttle and
brakes to:

[*] Protect yourself and others from injury
[*] Protect your cargo
[*] Prevent damage to the track structure and equipment
[*] Use fuel efficiently
[*] Meet your schedule

+---------------+
|+-------------+|
||TERMS TO KNOW||
|+-------------+|
+---------------+

You’ll need to understand the following terms and concepts in order to
operate the locomotive of your choice.

[*] Tractive effort: Tractive effort is a measure of how much pulling power a
locomotive has—it is the total power the locomotive can exert before the
wheels start to slip or the locomotive “stalls” from excessive resistance.
The maximum tractive effort that a locomotive can exert is equal to the
weight on the driving wheels multiplied by the ability of the wheels to grip
the rails (defined as the coefficient of adhesion, usually around 20%).

Because tractive effort is increased in proportion to total locomotive
weight, locomotives are intentionally made to be extremely heavy.

[*] Wheelslip: Wheelslip occurs when the amount of force applied to the
wheels is greater than the ability of the wheels to grip the rails. When
wheelslip happens in modern locomotives, it is detected and corrected
automatically; in Train Simulator locomotives you can apply sand to the track
manually to increase friction.

[*] Couplers: Trains consist of individual cars strung together with
couplers. In freight trains the couplers have a certain amount of “play” in
them, allowing two cars to come close together and move apart as the train
moves down the track. This helps the locomotive pull the train over varying
terrain. In-train forces: The amount of play in the couplers is called
“slack”—changes in the slack between cars are called in-train forces. The
engineer keeps these forces foremost in mind when accelerating, decelerating,
braking, cornering, and making changes in grade. In fact, you could say that
the freight engineer’s main job is to manage the slack in the train.

[*] Run-in force, run-out force: The two main in-train forces are run-in
force (also known as "buff force") and run-out force (also known as "draft
force").

Run-in force is the impact force two cars make as they move together.
Excessive run-in force can damage the equipment as the cars impact each
other, and even derail the train if the impact is severe enough.

Run-out force is the pulling force as slack stretches out and the cars move
farther apart to the maximum tension between their couplers. Excessive
run-out force can break a coupler or drawbar (the metal arm connecting the
coupler to the car).

In some cases, a long train can actually be easier to run than a short train
because the forces acting on different parts of the train can cancel each
other out. The rear of the train may still be going uphill when the front of
the train is going downhill, neutralizing the forces acting on the train.

+--------------------------------+
|+------------------------------+|
||SLOWING AND STOPPING THE TRAIN||
|+------------------------------+|
+--------------------------------+

It's essential to understand braking in railroad operations, as there are
many different types of brakes. Both locomotives and individual cars need
them. These brakes are divided into two categories: train brakes and
locomotive brakes.

Modern air brake systems use electronics and brake computers to control the
application and release of brakes, but the basic system of brake pipes, air
compressors, and air reservoirs is essentially the same.

+------------+
|Train brakes|
+------------+

The train brakes function on the entire train—they can be applied to all cars
in the train, including the locomotive. Since the early days of railroading,
train brakes have been designed to work automatically in case of emergency,
such as when cars accidentally uncouple from the locomotive. You will often
see train brakes referred to as automatic brakes.

[*] Air brakes: With the exception of the steam locomotive Flying Scotsman,
all of the locomotives in Train Simulator use air brakes, which are also
referred to as pneumatic brakes. Traditional air brakes use changes in air
pressure to control the application and release of the brakes. The brake pipe
holds air under pressure. To slow or stop the train, the engineer lowers the
pressure in the brake pipe, which signals the brakes in the cars to activate.

In an air brake system, the force of air pressure in the brake cylinder
presses the brake pad against the wheels, slowing the train.

A system of air reservoirs in each car, connected by a brake pipe that runs
the length of the train, are filled by the main compressor located on the
locomotive. The important thing to remember when operating an air brake
system is that you reduce the brake pipe pressure to increase the brake
cylinder pressure, which applies the brakes.

Over the years, there have been many modifications to the traditional air
brake system, particularly the addition of electrical switches and computers
to control air flow. The locomotives modeled in Train Simulator use a variety
of systems. See the online Help (press F1) for instructions on using the
brakes on the locomotive you are operating.

[*] Vacuum brakes: Flying Scotsman uses vacuum brakes. A vacuum brake system
is essentially the opposite of an air brake system. Steam-powered ejectors
create a vacuum in the brake pipe and brake cylinder. When the vacuum brake
handle is set to apply brakes, air moves into the brake pipe and reduces the
vacuum on one side of the brake piston. With this pressure change, the
movement of the piston causes the brake shoes to be applied to the wheels.

+-----------------+
|Locomotive brakes|
+-----------------+

The locomotive brakes function only on the locomotive. There are several
types of locomotive brakes:

[*] Independent brakes: Independent brakes are applied only on the
locomotive. The locomotive can use these brakes when it is operating light,
that is, without being coupled to cars. When the locomotive is coupled to
cars, the locomotive brakes can be applied and released independently of the
train brakes. Most locomotives use air brakes, although steam locomotives
often use steam-powered brakes.

[*] Dynamic brakes: Electric and diesel-electric locomotives are also
equipped with dynamic brakes, which use the traction motors that normally
drive the train to convert the moving train's energy into electricity. In
electric locomotives, this electricity can be returned to the catenary
(called regenerative braking), while diesel-electric locomotives dissipate
the electricity into the air as heat (rheostatic braking), using large
resistor grids on the roof of the locomotive. Dynamic brakes don't cause wear
on the brake shoes.

[*] Engine brakes: The KIHA 31 has an engine brake instead of a dynamic
brake. Engine brakes slow the train by using the train’s momentum to turn the
engine’s crankshaft. You use a similar principle in your automobile when you
put the transmission into low gear to descend a hill.

+------------------+
|+----------------+|
||UNITS OF MEASURE||
|+----------------+|
+------------------+

The displays and gauges in Train Simulator locomotives use the same units of
measure as their real-world counterparts. You can use the following table to
convert the units into the standard you are most familiar with, or to compare
values for two locomotives.

+--------+
|Pressure|
+--------+

			PSI 	Kg/cm2 	Inches 	Hg Bar 	kPa

1 pound per square 	1 	0.07 	2.04 	0.068 	6.89
inch (psi) is equal to

1 kilogram per 		14.2 	1 	29.04 	0.98 	98
centimeter squared
is equal to

(Hg) at 60° F is	0.49 	0.03 	1 	0.03 	3.38
equal to

1 bar is equal to 	14.5 	1.02 	29.6 	1 	100

1 kilopascal (kPa) 	0.145 	0.01 	0.296 	.01 	1

+-----+
|Speed|
+-----+

			mph 	km/h

1 mile per hour 	1 	1.6
(mph) is equal to

1 kilometer per hour 	0.62 	1
(km/h) is equal to


======================================================
|     PART: 7 - HOW TO DRIVE A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE      |
======================================================

This section covers the basic operations of steam locomotives in general, and
descriptions of the Microsoft Train Simulator versions of Flying Scotsman and
the Gölsdorf Series 380 locomotives in particular. The locomotives'
specifications appear after the general description of the trains modeled in
the simulation.

+-----------------------------+
|+---------------------------+|
||WHAT IS A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE?||
|+---------------------------+|
+-----------------------------+

*NOTE: The terminology used throughout this Engineer’s Handbook is American
English. See the bottom of this sub-section for some differences in American
and British terminology.

The simplest explanation of the operation of a steam engine is that the
fireman creates steam and the engineer uses the steam to move the train. The
fireman and the engineer are a team; they must cooperate closely to maintain
the safe and efficient operation of the locomotive. The conductor is charged
with the safety of the train and its passengers or freight, and its adherence
to the rules of the railroad. The first steam locomotive was built by British
engineer Richard Trevithick in 1804. By the mid-1830s, steam engines largely
replaced horses for pulling loads along the railways of Britain. By the end
of the century, steam locomotives had completely transformed the landscapes
and economies of the industrializing nations.

In Train Simulator, you are the engineer. You can choose to perform the
duties of the fireman, too, or you can delegate that task to the computer,
which performs the fireman’s task, but not as well as you can. The role of
the conductor is handled by the computer.

+-----------------------+
|Terminology differences|
+-----------------------+

U.S. 		U.K.
""""		""""
Engineer 	Engine driver,
		driver

Conductor 	Guard

Freight Car 	Wagon

Passenger 	Carriage
Coach

Freight train 	Goods train

Consist 	Rake

Switch 		Points

Exhaust 	Chimney
Stack

*NOTE: All of the steam locomotive Activities in Train Simulator feature
passenger trains. However, you can use the Activity Editor to create
Activities that use steam locomotives to pull freight trains. For more
information about Activities, see PART: 11 - The Activities. For more
information about the Activity Editor, see PART: 13 - Editors and Tools.

+-------------------------------+
|+-----------------------------+|
||USING THE LOCOMOTIVE CONTROLS||
|+-----------------------------+|
+-------------------------------+

These are the descriptions of the various controls and gauges you will find
on a Train Simulator steam locomotive. For more information and details see
the online Help (press F1).

+-------------------+
|Engineer's controls|
+-------------------+

[*] Steam Pressure Gauge: The Steam Pressure Gauge shows the pressure of the
steam in the boiler. The gauge reads in pounds per square inch (psi),
kilograms per centimeter squared (kg/cm2), or bars. If the steam pressure is
too high, you are in danger of an explosion. If the steam pressure is too
low, you won’t be able to generate sufficient force to move the train.

See the conversion table in PART: 6 - Train Basics, for more information
about pressure unit conversion. Steam Chest Pressure Gauge: The Steam Chest
Pressure Gauge shows the pressure of the steam in the cylinders. The pressure
is directly controlled by the Regulator.

[*] Regulator: The Regulator (throttle) controls how much steam the boiler
releases to the cylinders. Open the Regulator to increase speed and power.
Close the Regulator in time to stop the train at the desired location with
minimal application of brakes.

[*] Reverser: The Reverser is used to move the locomotive forwards or
backwards. Use the Reverser lever to set the duration of the piston stroke
during which steam enters the cylinders. The duration, known as the cutoff,
is expressed as a number (steam admitted for a percentage of the piston
stroke). As the Reverser setting is moved towards 0, the engine becomes more
efficient, but the force it develops drops.

The Reverser is similar to the transmission of an automobile engine. When
starting and stopping the train, use the Reverser in its full open position
(similar to a low gear). As the train gains momentum, move the Reverser
setting back to 0 (zero), limiting the duration of the piston stroke in which
steam is entering the cylinders, and thereby using the steam more efficiently
(similar to a high gear).

[*] Brake Handle: The Brake Handle applies and releases the brakes. Flying
Scotsman uses a vacuum

[*] brake system, while the 380 uses an air brake system.

[*] Brake Gauge: The brake gauge displays the pressure in the brake system.

[*] Cylinder Cocks: The cylinder cocks can be opened to allow steam that has
condensed into water to escape from the cylinders after the locomotive has
been left standing. Water must be drained from the cylinders because it is
uncompressible and can blow out the seals of the cylinder if pressurized by
the pistons. When the train is in motion, the cocks should be closed, since
steam can escape through them. Also, the lubrication system does not work
efficiently with the cocks open.

[*] Sanders: Use the sanders to blow sand onto the track to increase
traction. This helps you get a better grip on the track when starting the
train and on steep grades and wet track. There is a limited amount of sand on
the locomotive.

[*] Speedometer: The speedometer shows your speed in miles or kilometers per
hour, depending on the locomotive. In the 1920s, many steam locomotives did
not have speedometers, but Train Simulator includes them to help you operate
the locomotives.

[*] Steam Heat Pressure Valve: With this valve you can shunt some steam into
the steam heat line to heat the passenger cars. It must be adjusted to suit
the train length and pressure you want to deliver.

[*] Steam Heat Pressure Gauge: When you are running a passenger train in cold
temperatures, you will use some of the steam to generate heat for the
passenger cars. The Steam Heat Pressure Gauge shows you how much steam you
are using for this function. The longer the train, the more steam this
function uses. Steam heating can have a significant impact on the demands
placed on the boiler. You are never required to use steam heat for passenger
cars in Train Simulator, but you can if you want to make your run more
realistic.

[*] Whistle: Sound the whistle to warn passersby of your approach. For a more
realistic experience, use the proper whistle sequence. See the “Bells, Horns,
Lights, and Whistles” section in PART: 10 - Operations, for more information
about specific whistle codes. Headlights: You should keep the headlights on
during regular operation. In Train Simulator, whenever the headlights are
turned on, the rear lights are illuminated, too.

For more information see the "Bells, Whistles, Horns, and Lights" section in
PART: 10 - Operations.

+------------------+
|Fireman’s controls|
+------------------+

Note: You can delegate the role of the fireman to the computer, by choosing
the Automatic Fireman option from the General tab of the Options screen.

[*] Exhaust Stack: Watch the smoke coming out of the exhaust stack to gauge
how efficient your fireman’s efforts are. Clear or very light gray smoke is
ideal. Black smoke indicates that the coal is not being effectively
burned—this is like throwing the coal off the train rather than into the
firebox! White smoke indicates that there is too much air passing through the
firebox or that the fire is too cold.

[*] Dampers: The dampers are the primary control of airflow to the firebox,
and therefore the amount of heat given off by the fire. Open the damper doors
to add air and increase heat; close the damper doors to reduce air and lower
the heat level. You may end up leaving the damper doors open for the entire
journey.

[*] Blower: The blower keeps exhaust gases moving through the exhaust stack,
causing a vacuum that draws air through the firebox. Use the blower when
there is not sufficient natural draft flowing through the firebox to keep the
fire hot. This might occur when the locomotive is standing, coasting, or
under very low power. You can also turn on the blower to raise steam quickly,
since the increased airflow helps the fire burn hotter and makes the
combustion more efficient.

[*] Firebox Doors: Open the firebox door when you need to add coal to the
firebox, or when you need a secondary air source for the fire. Opening the
firebox door is not as effective as opening the dampers in making a hotter
fire, but can be helpful for adding some extra oxygen.

[*] Shovel and Firebox: Add the proper amount of coal to the firebox to keep
the fire at the desired heat level. There is an art to adding coal to the
fire in the right amounts and at the right times. Too much coal on the fire
may suffocate the fire; too little coal will not produce enough heat to raise
steam. Remember to add coal and allow the fire to heat up before injecting
additional water into the boiler, since adding cool water also has a cooling
effect. Also note that it’s bad form to add coal to the firebox when in a
station; it produces too much smoke.

To manage the fire well you need to be familiar with the locomotive and plan
ahead by at least 10 minutes. On the Scotsman, planning 20 to 25 minutes
ahead is a good idea.

[*] Boiler Water Gauge: The Boiler Water Gauge shows the water level in the
boiler. The level shown is affected by circumstances that can cause the water
level to shift, such as a grade or changes in speed.

[*] Injectors: Because the water in the boiler is constantly being converted
to steam to power the train, injectors are used to move water from the tender
into the boiler. Because the injectors use steam to move the water, and
because cool water from the tender cools the water in the boiler, try to
plan ahead so that you don’t need to use the injectors when the locomotive
needs a lot of steam power to move the train.

On mainline locomotives such as Flying Scotsman, it is common to leave one
injector on most of the time and use the second as required. The locomotives
are designed with this in mind. Under medium power demands, one injector
should be enough.

[*] Tender Water Gauge: The Tender Water Gauge indicates the water level in
the tender. If the water level is low, refill the tender’s water supply at a
water tower. In the real world, the Tender Water Gauge is located on the
tender, but in Train Simulator it is located on the front cab panel, next to
the Boiler Water Gauge.

[*] Water Scoop: The Water Scoop is used to add water to the tender when
passing over water troughs placed between the rails.

+------------------------------+
|+----------------------------+|
||OPERATING A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE||
|+----------------------------+|
+------------------------------+

In Train Simulator, the steam engine has been thoroughly checked, lubricated,
and fired up for you when you take the controls.

+----------------+
|Moving the train|
+----------------+

[1] Double-check the boiler water level using the Boiler Water Gauge. Note
that the Boiler Water Gauge is a sight glass (water tube).
[2] Make sure the Reverser is set to 0 (zero) cutoff, the Regulator is
closed, and the cylinder cocks are open.

Important: You must open the cylinder cocks if the locomotive has been
standing for any length of time. Be sure to close the cocks when the
cylinders have been drained (after five or six piston strokes).

[3] Set the Reverser for forward motion—as far forward as you can.
[4] Make sure that you do not have any Stop signals that apply to you.
[5] Await the “OK to proceed” whistle from the conductor.
[6] Slowly open the Regulator.
[7] Release the brakes.
[8] Continue to open the Regulator, watching the Steam Chest Pressure Gauge
to judge the force being developed by the engine. If the wheels start to
slip, reduce the Regulator and consider sanding.
[9] After five or six strokes of the cylinders, close the cylinder cocks.
[10] As you accelerate, slowly reduce the cutoff, then adjust the Regulator
to maintain the desired speed.

+------------+
|Going uphill|
+------------+

You may need to move the Reverser further towards Forward, and fully open the
 Regulator, to supply greater power output to climb the hill.

+--------------+
|Going downhill|
+--------------+

If the grade is sufficient, you can close the Regulator and reduce the
Reverser towards 0 (zero) in order to save fuel.

Keep an eye on the water level in the boiler, but be aware that you get false
readings on the water level gauges as the boiler tilts with the hill. The
water level gauge reads lower than the actual amount of water in the boiler.
It’s important that the water level be sufficient to keep the top of the fire
box covered even when the boiler is tilted on a slope.

+----------------+
|Stopping a train|
+----------------+

The amount of braking required to stop the train depends on the train's speed
and weight, the locomotive's braking power, and the grade of the track. Take
these factors into consideration when planning a stop.

As you approach the stopping point, close the Regulator. Apply light brake
pressure to take up the slack in the train if your train contains cars with
couplers that have slack action (such as freight cars). Then apply as much
brake as necessary to stop the train.

The length of time required to recharge the brake system varies with the
available boiler pressure and the length of the train.

+-----------------+
|+---------------+|
||TROUBLESHOOTING||
|+---------------+|
+-----------------+

+--------------------+
|Problem: Blowing off|
+--------------------+

What it means:
==============

Each locomotive has a maximum pressure, called the working pressure, measured
in pounds per square inch (psi) or kilograms per centimeter squared
(kg/ cm2). If the boiler develops more pressure than the working pressure
upper limit, safety valves open automatically to blow off excess steam.
This is an inefficient use of coal and water, and is particularly unwelcome
when standing at a station, as “blowing off” is very noisy and the mist can
dampen passengers and cargo. How to diagnose: You see and hear steam being
released from the safety valve. How to avoid: Know your route and plan ahead
so that you’re not creating steam you don’t need. In particular, back off on
firing before periods of reduced steam usage, such as during extended stops.

What to do:
===========

The safety valves do most of the work for you by venting the excess steam and
lowering the pressure.

+------------------------------------+
|Problem: Boiler’s fusible plugs melt|
+------------------------------------+

What it means:
==============

If at any time the water level in the boiler falls so low that it does not
cover the firebox, the firebox can melt, causing a fatal boiler explosion. As
a safety mechanism, the roof of the firebox contains plugs that melt at a
much lower temperature than the iron firebox. If the plugs melt, the steam
from the boiler rushes into the firebox, thereby lowering the fire
temperature and alerting the crew.

How to diagnose:
================

The Activity ends.

How to avoid:
=============

Keep the water level high enough to cover the firebox. Remember that the
water level and the water gauge are affected by the slope of the train on a
grade. Be sure to pick up additional water if the tender water level is
getting low.

What to do:
===========

If the fusible plugs melt, the Activity ends.

+--------------------+
|Problem: Black smoke|
+--------------------+

What it means:
==============

Black smoke indicates inefficient combustion of the coal.

How to diagnose:
================

Black smoke is expelled from the exhaust stack.

How to avoid:
=============

Over time, you will gain experience in firing the locomotive. In general,
black smoke is caused by a cool fire, often due to an inadequate amount of
air passing through the firebox. This can be caused by too much coal on the
fire, closed dampers, or not enough draft for the fire (in which case you
should turn on the blower). Whenever you add coal to the fire, some black
smoke is generated until the coal is hot enough to burn completely.

What to do:
===========

Open the damper or fire doors, and/or turn on the blower. Stop or reduce the
addition of coal.

+---------------------------+
|Problem: Low steam pressure|
+---------------------------+

What it means:
==============

Aside from the obvious problem of lack of motive power, low steam pressure is
dangerous because steam powers the water injectors and also keeps the brakes
off. Low steam pressure could cause a boiler failure (because water cannot
be injected into the boiler) and can cause the train brakes to be applied.
How to diagnose: Low pressure is indicated on the steam pressure gauge, and
the brakes may come on.

How to avoid:
=============

Make sure you have sufficient coal and water in your tender for the journey.
Plan ahead for the amount of fire you’ll need. Smooth out the demand for
steam, making the changes in demand as small as possible. Use the gradients
of the route to help you. Beware of making the fire too "thick" or "thin."

What to do:
===========

If there is sufficient water in the boiler, close the injectors. Look at the
fire; it may need more air from the blower. Turn off steam heat to the
passenger cars until steam pressure increases.

Make sure the dampers are fully open.

If the fire needs to be built up, do it slowly. If the fire is too deep, stop
adding coal and use the blower and fire doors effectively. You may need to
the drive the train carefully until enough fire is burned away for effective
operation. Beware of trading too much water level for steam; it’s generally
easier to recover pressure than water level.

+----------------------------+
|Problem: Blowback in tunnels|
+----------------------------+

What it means:
==============

The fire comes back into the cab, burning the crew as the engine enters a
tunnel.

How to diagnose:
================

The Activity ends.

How to avoid:
=============

Before entering a tunnel, close the firebox doors. Open the blower fully.

What to do:
===========

This is an Activity ending error.

+-----------------+
|+---------------+|
||FLYING SCOTSMAN||
|+---------------+|
+-----------------+

London & North Eastern Railway’s No. 4472 Flying Scotsman, the third of Sir
Nigel Gresley’s A1 “Pacifics,” was the first of the new locomotive series for
the LNER. Debuting on February 7, 1923, Flying Scotsman represented the
latest in British engineering and design. Named for the familiar, 61-year old
King’s Cross to Edinburgh express train, No. 4472’s long recognition in the
public eye began with a two-year run as a major exhibit at the British Empire
Exhibition.

Flying Scotsman not only was a great symbol of elegance and power, but set
the world record for longest non-stop regular service run in 1928, running
the 392 miles from London to Edinburgh in just over eight hours. To
accomplish this feat, a unique corridor tender was created to allow an extra
crew to relieve the fireman and engineer without having to stop the train. In
1934, Flying Scotsman was the first steam locomotive to achieve an
authenticated speed of 100 mph.

After 40 years of regular operations, the locomotive was removed from service
as one of the last steam locomotives in the British Rail system. Alan Pegler
purchased and restored No. 4472 in 1963; the 70 other locomotives in its
class were all scrapped. Flying Scotsman began its second life as a working
historical piece, pulling “specials” on April 20, 1963. It continues to
capture the hearts of steam enthusiasts around the world. No. 4472 has made
several special tours, including journeys to America and Australia that made
it the only steam locomotive to have run on three continents. In Australia,
it broke its own long-distance record with a non-stop run of 422 miles. Under
the direction of new owner Dr. Tony Marchington, Flying Scotsman recently
underwent a major restoration and is back on the rails pulling a consist of
luxury coaches on journeys throughout the United Kingdom.

+--------------------+
|Wheel Classification|
+--------------------+

The wheel arrangement of the Flying Scotsman is classified using the Whyte
System, which counts the number of leading, driving, and trailing wheels.
Flying Scotsman is a 4-6-2, meaning that it has four leading wheels (two
axles), six driving wheels (three axles), and two trailing wheels (one axle).
Only the driving wheels are powered; the other wheels provide better tracking
at high speed and carry the weight of the firebox.

+------------------------------+
|Flying Scotsman Specifications|
+------------------------------+

Note: 1 U.S. ton = 2,000 lb. (Also known as a “short ton.”)
1 metric ton = 1,000 kg = 2200 lb. (Also spelled “tonne.”)
1 Imperial ton = 2,240 lb. (Also known as a “long ton.”)

Locomotive type & no.: LNER A1 4-6-2 8P, No. 4472
Power source: 180 psi hand-fired, coal burning boiler
Wheel configuration: Six 80-in. (2.03m) diameter driving wheels
in a 4-6-2 configuration
Max. speed: 100 mph (161 km/h) under favorable conditions
Height: 13 ft, 2 in (4.03 m) (to safety valve top)
Width: 9 ft (2.74 m)(over footplate)
Length (locomotive & tender): 70.43 ft (21.47m)
Weight (locomotive & tender): 171 U.S. tons (155 metric tons)
Tractive effort: 29,835 lb (13,532.93 kg)
Coal capacity: 9 U.S. tons (8 metric tons)
Water capacity: 6,000 U.S. gallons (22,712 liters)
Brakes: Vacuum, operates at 21 in. Hg*

*See the conversion table in PART: 6 - Train Basics, for more information.

+---------------------+
|+-------------------+|
||GÖLSDORF SERIES 380||
|+-------------------+|
+---------------------+

The Gölsdorf Series 380 steam locomotive is one of 47 locomotive types
designed by famed Austrian locomotive designer Karl Gölsdorf. The 380 is the
freight cousin of the Series 310 passenger locomotive; both are well-known
for their remarkably high boiler position, aesthetic conical shape and
functional form.

The 380 is a four-cylinder, compound locomotive. This means the steam is used
twice before being exhausted. Steam first enters the smaller, high-pressure
cylinders located between the frame rails and drives connecting rods attached
to a crankshaft on the third axle. The exhausted steam is then routed to the
larger, low-pressure cylinders located outside the frame rails and drives
connecting rods attached to the third drive wheels. The major differences
between the Series 380 and the 310 are the number and size of the drive
wheels. The 380 has ten 55-inch driving wheels while the 310 has six 82"
wheels. This greatly affects the performance of each locomotive. A passenger
locomotive like the 310 operates best with fewer, large-diameter driving
wheels that enable high-speed runs. The tradeoff is a lower tractive effort
that limits the length of passenger trains because of a lower pulling
ability. With the 380, these characteristics are reversed. The 380 uses its
smaller wheels to pull the heavy freight trains. The ten smaller wheels make
the 380’s tractive effort significantly higher than the 310’s.

The 380’s high tractive effort makes it a natural for pulling the
Orient-Express passenger train through the mountainous
regions of Austria.

+--------------------+
|Wheel Classification|
+--------------------+

The wheel arrangement of the Gölsdorf 380 is classified using the German
system, which counts the number of leading, driving, and trailing axles.
Numbers are used for non-powered axles, and letters are used for powered
("driving") axles, with A equal to 1, B equal to 2, and so on. The 380 is
classified as 1E, meaning that it has one non-powered leading axle, five
powered axles, and no trailing axles. Using the Whyte system, which is
favored in the U.S. and U.K., the 380 would be a 2-10-0.

+----------------------------------+
|Gölsdorf Series 380 Specifications|
+----------------------------------+

Note: 1 U.S. ton = 2,000 lb. (Also known as a “short ton.”)
1 metric ton = 1,000 kg = 2200 lb. (Also spelled “tonne.”)
1 Imperial ton = 2,240 lb. (Also known as a “long ton.”)

Locomotive type: Series 380 1E h4v (2-10-0)
Wheel configuration: Ten 55.5 in. (141 cm) diameter driving wheels,
1E configuration
Max. boiler pressure: 16kg/cm2. (228 psi)
Max. speed (permitted): 43.5 mph (70 km/h)
Height: 15 ft (4.57 m)
Width: 10 ft, 1in (3.08 m)
Length: 38 ft (11.6 m) (locomotive), 24.9 ft (7.59 m) (tender);
total: 62.9 ft (19.2 m)
Weight (locomotive &
class 156 tender): 157 U.S. tons (142 metric tons)
Max. weight on driving wheels: 15.4 U.S. tons (14 metric tons)
Tractive effort: 13.3 U.S. tons (12.1 metric tons)
Coal capacity: 11.2 U.S. tons (10.2 metric tons)
Water capacity: 7,800 gallons (29,500 liters)
Brakes: Train and locomotive air brakes


======================================================
|     PART: 8 - HOW TO DRIVE A DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE     |
======================================================

This chapter covers the basic operations of diesel locomotives in general,
and descriptions of Microsoft Train Simulator Dash 9, GP38-2, KIHA 31
locomotives in particular. The locomotives’ specifications appear after the
general description of the trains modeled in the simulation.

+------------------------------+
|+----------------------------+|
||WHAT IS A DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE?||
|+----------------------------+|
+------------------------------+

A diesel engine is an oil-burning internal combustion engine. In a gasoline
engine the fuel is ignited by spark plugs, but in a diesel engine the fuel
ignites because of heat generated by compression inside the cylinders. When
the pressure in the cylinders rises, the temperature of the fuel-air mixture
increases to the point where it ignites. The force of the ignition of the
fuel moves the pistons in the cylinders, which turn the crankshaft.

In a diesel-mechanical or diesel-hydraulic locomotive, the crankshaft is
connected to a mechanical or hydraulic transmission that both lowers the
speed of rotation and allows power to connect and disconnect from the wheels.
The KIHA 31 is a diesel-hydraulic locomotive.

In a diesel-electric locomotive, the crankshaft turns an alternator or
generator, which produces electricity to power the traction motors (one
located on each driving axle), which turn the wheels. Diesel-electric
locomotives are similar to electric locomotives, except that rather than
having the electricity generated outside the locomotive and delivered by
electrified lines, the electricity is generated on board. The Dash 9 and
GP38-2 are diesel-electric, as are almost all large diesel locomotives.

Diesel locomotives have the same operational advantages over steam that
electric locomotives have, in terms of power and fuel efficiency. But unlike
pure electric locomotives, diesels can go anywhere there is track, because
they don’t need electrified lines, which are costly to build and maintain
over long distances.

+--------------------------------------------------------+
|+------------------------------------------------------+|
||USING THE DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE CONTROLS & GAUGES||
|+------------------------------------------------------+|
+--------------------------------------------------------+

These are the descriptions of the various controls you will find on a Train
Simulator diesel-electric locomotive. For more information and details see
the online Help (press F1).

[*] Reverser: The Reverser determines the direction of travel. There are
three positions: Forward, Neutral, and Reverse.

[*] Throttle: The throttle controls the amount of power generated by the
locomotive, and therefore, the propulsion of the train.

Note: When starting the train, pause at each notch (throttle level) as you
advance the throttle.

[*] Dynamic Brake: The dynamic brake converts the energy of the moving train
into electricity, which is dissipated into the air as heat. Dynamic brakes
cannot be used at very low speeds because they depend on the train’s
momentum. An optimum speed range of about 18 to 25 mph (30 to 40 km/h) is
typical for the operation of most dynamic brakes.

Dynamic braking may cause wheelslip. If wheelslip occurs, reduce the level of
dynamic braking. Always use dynamic brakes to their fullest extent before
using locomotive air brakes. In the real world, air brakes can cause wear and
tear on the wheels.

[*] Locomotive Air Brake: The Locomotive Air Brake (also called the
Independent Brake) handle applies and releases the brake pressure on the
locomotive only. You can release the air brakes on the locomotive even when
the train brakes are being applied to the rest of the train, a procedure
called "actuating off the air" or "bailing off the air."

[*] Train Brake: The Train Brake handle typically has a series of settings
from Release through various degrees of application to Emergency.

[*] Sanders: The sanders apply sand to the rail to increase traction and
avoid wheelslip.

[*] Horn: Each railroad has specific rules about using horns. For more
information see the "Bells, Whistles, Horns and Lights" section in
PART: 10 - Operations.

[*] Headlights: For a more realistic experience, you should keep the
headlights on during regular operation. Use the Dim setting when approaching
an oncoming train or when operating through a yard or locomotive facility.

In Train Simulator, whenever the headlights are turned on, the rear lights
are illuminated, too.

[*] Speedometer: The speedometer shows the speed of the train.

[*] Ammeter: The ammeter shows the number of amperes of electrical current
being drawn (for motive power) or generated (for dynamic braking) in the
traction motors. On the GP38-2, the ammeter is also called the Load
Indicating Meter.

[*] Brake Pressure Gauges: The Brake Pressure gauges display how much brake
pressure is applied and how much brake pressure is available. When the brakes
are applied, the equalizing reservoir and brake pipe pressure drop. The
brake cylinder pressure goes up. When the brakes are released, the equalizing
reservoir and brake pipe start to be recharged by the air compressor. The
brake cylinder pressure, which is the actual pressure pushing the brakes
against the wheels of the locomotive, decreases to 0 (zero).

For more information about brakes, see PART:6 - Train Basics.

[*] Brake Pipe Pressure Gauge: When you use only the locomotive brake and not
the train brake, you won’t see a change in the brake pipe pressure. This
gauge displays the pressure in the brake pipe.

[*] Equalizing Reservoir Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the pressure of
the equalizing reservoir. When you apply the brakes, the pressure in the
equalizing reservoir drops immediately and the new pressure is then
propagated in the brake pipe, which runs the length of the train.

[*] Main Reservoir Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the amount of air
pressure available to recharge the braking system. You’ll see a drop in the
main reservoir pressure when the brakes are released because air is moving
from the main reservoir to recharge the equalizing reservoir, the brake pipe,
and the auxiliary reservoirs on each car.

[*] Brake Cylinder (BC) Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the brake
cylinder pressure in the lead locomotive. If you apply or bail off the
locomotive brakes independently, remember that this gauge does not show the
pressure in the brake cylinders on the rest of the train.

+----------------------------------------+
|+--------------------------------------+|
||OPERATING A DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE||
|+--------------------------------------+|
+----------------------------------------+

+----------------+
|Moving the train|
+----------------+

You must watch your slack (the “play” between each car) and keep these points
 in mind:

[*] Use the lowest throttle position possible to start the train moving. You
may need to retard starting acceleration by using the locomotive brake.

[*] Once the train is moving, do not increase the throttle until either the
amperage (as shown on the ammeter).

[*] To accelerate, advance the throttle slowly one notch at a time.

[*] On curved sections of track, be moderate in applying power. This reduces
the possibility of "stringlining" (the tendency of cars to "straighten out"
and derail on a curved stretch of track).

To start a train on a level grade:
==================================

[1] Set the Reverser for forward or backward movement.
[2] Release the train brake.
[3] After the brakes have released on the entire train, move the throttle to
the lowest setting and release the Locomotive Brake.

If the train moves too quickly, control acceleration using the Locomotive
Brake to prevent excessive in-train forces.

If the train does not move, slowly advance the throttle to the next setting.

[4] Wait for the current reading on the Ammeter to fall before advancing the
throttle to the next higher position.

Note: Use the lowest possible throttle setting to minimize in-train forces.

+-------------------+
|Slowing or stopping|
+-------------------+

To slow or stop a train:

[1] Reduce throttle.
[2] Gradually apply dynamic brakes to allow slack to "bunch up" against the
locomotive.
[3] Add air brakes as necessary to stop or slow to your desired speed.

+---------+
|Reversing|
+---------+

To reverse the direction of the train:

[1] Bring the locomotive to a full stop
[2] Move the Reverser to Reverse
[3] Release all brakes
[4] Advance the throttle

+-------------------+
|Blending the brakes|
+-------------------+

As you head down a steep or long grade, use the dynamic brake first to gently
bunch up the train slack against the locomotive(s). Then, use a minimum
reduction in brake pipe pressure, such as 6 to 8 pounds per square inch
(psi), to set the air brakes. You must have the train air brakes and dynamic
brakes in balance so that you won't need to make adjustments to the air
brakes and you can use the dynamic brake to speed up or slow down.

Important: Train air brakes can be applied gradually but they cannot be
released gradually; if you brake too heavily, you will have to fully release
the brakes before you can try to apply them again. If this process is
repeated too often in a short period of time, you can use up all of your air
pressure and have NO AIR BRAKES, a potentially disastrous situation on a
long, steep grade. Always try to use the dynamic brakes first (because they
do not have this limitation), combined with careful, gradual application of
the air brakes.

Do not supplement the dynamic brake with the locomotive air brakes unless you
are in the process of starting or stopping and your speed is below the
effective range of the dynamic brakes. Always use dynamic brakes to their
fullest extent before using locomotive air brakes.

+---------------------+
|Wheelslip and sanding|
+---------------------+

In the real world, computers on the locomotives monitor the axles. If there
is a differential in axle speeds, power is automatically reduced to the
slipping wheel and sand is automatically applied. In Train Simulator, you
apply sand manually, by pressing the X key.

+---------------------------+
|Controlling in-train forces|
+---------------------------+

Except when emergency braking is required, change throttle positions and
brake applications slowly to allow your train’s slack to adjust gradually.

When you use the dynamic brakes and air brakes together and you reach the
desired speed, maintain enough dynamic brake to control slack until the air
brakes are fully released.

+-----------------+
|Throttle handling|
+-----------------+

Make throttle changes one notch at a time. If the wheelslip light comes on,
reduce the throttle until the light goes out.

Never apply power to hold a train stationary on a grade. Always use the train
brakes to hold a train on a grade.

+-----------------------------------+
|+---------------------------------+|
||DASH 9 DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE||
|+---------------------------------+|
+-----------------------------------+

The GE-9-44CW (commonly called “the Dash 9”) is a modern diesel-electric
locomotive manufactured by General Electric. Using DC (direct-current)
traction technology, the Dash 9 is part of the highly reliable and
cost-effective line of locomotives descending from the Universal series of
locomotives (nicknamed "U-Boats") that first hit the rails as part of the
"Second Generation" diesel era in the early 1960s. The locomotive’s design is
very practical, with good visibility fore and aft for the engineer and easy
access to the engine compartment for maintenance crews.

You can operate the Dash 9 on the Marias Pass route in Montana, pulling
freight between Shelby and Whitefish. If you choose to try out this
locomotive on another line, be aware that these units are most effective
pulling loads over long stretches at freight-train speeds.

+---------------------------------+
|GE-9-44CW (Dash 9) Specifications|
+---------------------------------+

Locomotive type: Diesel-Electric
Power: 4,400 hp
Max. speed: 74 mph (119 km/h)
Gear ratio: 83:20
Power source: Diesel engine
Alternator: GMG 197
Traction motors: Six GE752AH™ DC electric motors
Max. starting tractive effort: 142,000 lb (64,410 kg)
Max. continuous tractive effort: 105,640 lb (47,917 kg)
Wheel configuration: Twelve 42-inch (107 cm) diameter in C-C configuration
(two sets of three driven axles)
Brakes: Independent, automatic, and dynamic
Height: 15 ft, 5 in (4.70 m)
Width: 10 ft, 3 in (3.12 m)
Length: 73 ft, 2 in (22.25 m)
Weight: 210 U.S. tons (190.5 metric tons)

+--------+
|+------+|
||GP38-2||
|+------+|
+--------+

Since its introduction by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors in
1972, the GP38-2 diesel-electric locomotive has proven to be a popular and
versatile performer for North American railroads, capable of tasks ranging
from switching to pulling freight over the main line. While the GP38-2 lacks
the awesome power of the more modern six-axle locomotives (like the 4,400 hp
Dash 9 modeled in Train Simulator), many are still in service today, 25 years
or more after first hitting the rails. This 2,000 hp locomotive could even
be ordered with dual controls to allow the engineer to effectively operate
from either side of the locomotive.

+---------------------+
|GP38-2 Specifications|
+---------------------+

Locomotive type: Diesel-Electric
Power source: Diesel engine
Power: 2,000 hp
Max. speed: 65 mph (115 km/h)
Gear ratio: 62:15
Alternator (rectified output): AR10
Traction motors: Four model D77 DC, series wound, axle-hung
Max. continuous tractive effort: 52,000 lb (23,586.8 kg)
Wheel configuration: Eight 40-in (102 cm), tapered tread in
B-B configuration (two sets of two driven axles)
Brakes: 78,000 lb (35,400 kg) retarding force dynamic;
type 26L air
Height: 15 ft, 4 in (4.7 m)
Weight: 125 U.S. tons (113.4 metric tons)
Length: 59 ft, 2 in (18 m)
Width: 10 ft, 4 in (3.1 m)

+---------+
|+-------+|
||KIHA 31||
|+-------+|
+---------+

The KIHA 31 is a dual cab (front and rear) self-propelled diesel-hydraulic
passenger railway car. Unlike the massive GP38-2 and Dash 9 locomotives with
their multi-thousand horsepower engines and electric transmissions, the KIHA
31 employs a modest and economical 246 hp engine coupled to a two-speed
hydraulic transmission, similar to the transmission in an automobile. The
KIHA 31 modeled in Train Simulator traverses the scenic Hisatsu tourist route
on Japan’s southern island of Kyushu as a single car or as a multiple car
consist, depending on passenger traffic levels.

The KIHA 31 is a true diesel locomotive with a hydraulic transmission
(rather than converting power to electric traction motors), which makes
driving the KIHA similar to driving a manual transmission automobile. On
downhill grades, you can apply the Engine Brake, which essentially ties the
engine directly to the wheels without gears so that the wheels are slowed by
the engine. This saves wear on the train’s brake shoes, and helps to prevent
them from overheating.

A common KIHA 31 operating practice is unpowered operation—coasting—because
it’s quiet and economical. In fact, when traveling down from the mountain
summit at Yatake, you may not need to apply the throttle at all to start the
train moving after a stop; try just releasing the brakes and coasting!

Note: You’ll find two KIHA 31 models in Train Simulator. The only difference
between them is that the KIHA 31 Isaburo/Shinpei has a placard in its window
noting that it is the Isaburo/Shinpei sightseeing train, which makes long
stops at points of interest. The Isaburo/Shinpei train runs only between
Hitoyoshi and Yoshimatsu.

+----------------------+
|KIHA 31 Specifications|
+----------------------+

Note: 1 U.S. ton = 2,000 lb. (Also known as a "short ton.")
1 metric ton = 1,000 kg = 2200 lb. (Also spelled "tonne.")
1 Imperial ton = 2,240 lb. (Also known as a "long ton.")

Locomotive type: Diesel-Hydraulic
Power source: Model DMF13HS diesel engine
Power: 246 hp
Max. speed: 59 mph (95 km/h)
Height: 12 ft, 7 in (3.84 m)
Width: 9 ft, 7 in (2.92 m)
Length: 58 ft, 4 in (17.75 m)
Weight: 33 U.S. tons (30 metric tons)
Wheel configuration: Eight wheels in B-B configuration (one driven axle)
Brakes: Automatic air brakes, engine brake
This chapter covers the basic operations
of electric locomotives in general, and
descriptions of the Microsoft® Train
Simulator versions of the Odakyu
Railway 2000 and 7000 LSE Series,
Amtrak® AcelaSM Express, and AcelaSM
HHP-8 locomotives in particular. The
locomotives’ specifications appear after
the general description of the trains
modeled in the simulation.


======================================================
|    PART: 9 - HOW TO DRIVE AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE   |
======================================================

This chapter covers the basic operations of electric locomotives in general,
and descriptions of the Microsoft Train Simulator versions of the Odakyu
Railway 2000 and 7000 LSE Series, Amtrak® AcelaSM Express, and AcelaSM HHP-8
locomotives in particular. The locomotives’ specifications appear after the
general description of the trains modeled in the simulation.

+---------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------+|
||WHAT IS AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE?||
|+-------------------------------+|
+---------------------------------+

In 1893, General Electric produced the first electric locomotive, but it was
to be many years before electrics were to become a common sight on the
nation's rails. In addition to the technological barriers that had to be
overcome to make electrified transport a reality, it was expensive to install
and maintain miles of power lines over the rails. This impediment remains
today, and is one of the reasons that diesel-electrics (which generate their
own electricity) are now the most commonly used locomotives.

Despite this limitation, electric routes continue to be developed all over
the world, primarily for highspeed passenger service. Electric trains
continue to operate and evolve because they:

[*] Are the lightest and fastest form of rail transport, since they don't
have to carry power-generating equipment on board.

[*] Are the cleanest and quietest form of motive power for rail service.

[*] Are the beneficiaries of a wide range of technological advances in
materials and electronics.

[*] Use fuel efficiently.

[*] Can use multiple locomotives with a single crew, or even have their
traction motors distributed throughout the train.

[*] Retain a high level of pulling power on uphill grades.

[*] Use dynamic braking, which can save wear on the brake shoes and return
electric power to the supply line.

[*] Spend more of their time in service (rather than in the shop or taking on
water and coal).

Electric trains are powered by electricity supplied either from overhead
lines (catenary) or from a third rail. All of the electric locomotives
included with Train Simulator use pantographs to access power from the
overhead lines. (A pantograph is the mechanical linkage located on the roof
of an electric locomotive, and sometimes a passenger car, that connect the
train to its electric power line.) Modern electric locomotives use computer
technology throughout the train. Digital displays in the cab show the train's
status and operational data such as speed and brake conditions. Automated
systems often ensure that the train obeys signals and speed limits.

Electric trains use both air brakes and dynamic brakes (see PART: 6 - Train
Basics, for details). On some trains, a brake control computer blends the
two braking systems to provide smooth, efficient braking with minimal
wear-and-tear on the components.

+---------------------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------------+|
||USING ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE CONTROLS & GAUGES||
|+-------------------------------------------+|
+---------------------------------------------+

These are the descriptions of the various controls you will find on a Train
Simulator electric locomotive. For more information and details see the
online Help (press F1).

[*] Reverser: The Reverser controls the direction of movement of the train.
On electric trains, the Reverser has three positions: Forward, Neutral, and
Reverse.

[*] Throttle: The Throttle controls the power output of the locomotive, and
therefore the speed of the train.

[*] Brakes: The air brake handle typically has a series of settings from
Release through various degrees of application to Emergency. In some electric
locomotives, one lever controls both air brakes and dynamic brakes, which are
blended together by computer for maximum efficiency and effectiveness. See
the online Help (press F1) for a detailed description of the characteristics
and operation of the brakes on the individual trains.

Note: The Acela HHP-8 (for "high horsepower 8000") is the only electric
locomotive in Train Simulator that can be uncoupled from the passenger cars.
It has an independent (locomotive) brake handle that allows the brakes in the
locomotive to be applied and released independently from the brakes on the
cars.

[*] Brake Pressure Gauges: Brakes are a crucial part of operating any
locomotive; there are several types of brakes in the electric locomotives.

[*] Brake Pipe Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the pressure in the brake
pipe.

[*] Equalizing Reservoir Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the pressure of
the equalizing reservoir. When you apply the brakes, the pressure in the
equalizing reservoir drops immediately and is then propagated in the brake
pipe, which runs the length of the train.

[*] Main Reservoir Pressure Gauge: This gauge displays the amount of air
pressure available to recharge the braking system. You’ll see a drop in the
main reservoir pressure when the brakes are released; air is moving from the
main reservoir to recharge the equalizing reservoir, the brake pipe, and the
auxiliary reservoirs on each car.

[*] Brake Cylinder (BC) Pressure Gauge: The BC Pressure Gauge displays the
brake cylinder pressure in the lead locomotive. If you apply or bail off the
locomotive brakes independently, remember that this gauge does not show the
pressure in the brake cylinders on the rest of the train.

[*] Pantograph button: The Pantograph button raises and lowers the
pantographs. The Japanese trains have pantographs on the passenger cars as
well as the locomotive. The pantograph picks up the electrical current from
the overhead wires and transmits it to the traction motors of the train.

[*] Speedometer: Shows the speed of the train.

[*] Ammeter: The Ammeter measures electric current, which flows from the
catenary into the pantograph and then to the traction motors. The Ammeter
shows how much power you are using, which is controlled by the throttle.

During dynamic braking, the Ammeter shows how much current is being generated
by the traction motors. This current is either returned to the catenary or
dissipated as heat. Horn: Each railroad has specific rules about horns. For
more information see the "Bells, Whistles, Horns and Lights" section in
PART: 10 - Operations.

[*] Headlights: You should keep the headlights on during regular operation.
In Train Simulator, whenever the headlights are turned on, the rear lights
are illuminated, too. In Train Simulator, whenever the headlights are turned
on, the lights at the other end of the train are illuminated, too.

For more information see the “Bells, Whistles, Horns, and Lights” section in
PART: 10 - Operations.

[*] Sanders: The sanders apply sand to the rails to help prevent wheelslip.
Most electric locomotives have an automatic wheelslip detection system that
applies sand as needed. (The wheelslip detector may also adjust the power
going to the motors to reduce slipping.) You can use the Sander button to
apply sand yourself, but remember that there is a limited amount of sand on
board.

+----------------------------------+
|+--------------------------------+|
||OPERATING AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE||
|+--------------------------------+|
+----------------------------------+

+----------------+
|Moving the train|
+----------------+

The locomotive has been unlocked and activated for you.

To move the train:
""""""""""""""""""
1. Raise the pantograph if it’s not already up.
2. Set the Reverser handle to Forward or Reverse.
3. Release all brakes.
4. Slowly increase the throttle.

+------------------+
|Stopping the train|
+------------------+

To apply brakes:
""""""""""""""""
Move the brake handle towards the full application position.

To reduce braking effort:
"""""""""""""""""""""""""
Move the brake handle towards the release position.

Passenger comfort is a key sign of a good driver—proper braking is crucial.
The best way to come to a smooth stop is by coasting to a stop. You can do
this by bringing the throttle back to 0 (zero) as you approach the platform.
When you are ready to come to a stop, apply only as much brake as you need to
bring the train to a gentle stop. Stop the train and then apply full brakes
while the passengers get off and on.

+-----------------+
|+---------------+|
||THE 2000 SERIES||
|+---------------+|
+-----------------+

The Odakyu Electric Railway Company’s 2000 Series electric railcar was one of
the first "Super High Technology" trains on the Odakyu routes that run
through central Tokyo. The 2000s were designed with the commuter in mind,
both for comfort and to ease the ever-growing commuter traffic on the Odakyu
lines. This series is a major improvement over the 1000 Series railcars: the
cars were made wheelchair accessible and measures were taken to reduce noise.
These changes were significant enough for Odakyu to be nominated for the
"Good Design Award" by the Japan Industrial Design Promotion Organization.

+--------------------------+
|2000 Series Specifications|
+--------------------------+

Locomotive/trainset type: 4M4T Electric Railcar; 16 175-kW motors, 4 on each
of 4 cars
Power source: 1,350 volt, 117 amp overhead electric lines
Power: 3,750 hp
Max. speed permitted: 62 mph (100 km/h)
Height: 13 ft, 4 in (4.06 m)
Width: 9 ft, 7 in (2.9 m)
Length: 66 ft, 1 in (20.15 m)
Brakes: MBSA-R, 4.0 km/h per second deceleration,
4.7 km/h per second emergency

+---------------------+
|+-------------------+|
||THE 7000 LSE SERIES||
|+-------------------+|
+---------------------+

The Odakyu 7000 Luxury Super Express (LSE) is one of the "Romance Cars,"
so-called because of the unusual luxury it offers compared to typical
Japanese commuter trains. On the 7000 LSE, all passengers have seats, unlike
commuter trains, in which passengers continue to squeeze in until the doors
won’t close. The 7000 LSE also makes only a few stops, unlike the commuter
trains, which stop constantly. Consequently, the train cuts half an hour from
the normal two-hour journey. The Romance Cars first began running tourists on
the route from Shinjuku to Hakone in 1948. Hakone is in the heart of a major
tourist area with outstanding views of Mt. Fuji, lakes, mountains, and
hot-spring resorts. The 7000 Series has been enhanced and improved over time,
and in 1981 it won the Blue Ribbon Award from the Japanese Railway Friendship
Club (Tetsudo Tomonokai). The 7000s were completely rebuilt in 1996, when the
interior design was changed to appeal to tourists and shoppers as well as
business people.

+------------------------------+
|7000 LSE Series Specifications|
+------------------------------+

Locomotive/trainset type: 9M2T DC Electric Railcar; 16 140-kW motors,
distributed across 9 cars
Power source: 1,350 volt, 420-amp overhead power line
Power: 3,000 hp
Max. speed: 68.3 mph (110 km/h)
Height: 13 ft, 4 in (4.06 m)
Width: 9 ft, 6 in (2.9 m)
Length: 53 ft, 9 in (16.39 m)
Brakes: MBS-D Electro-pneumatic air brakes, 4 km/h/s deceleration

+----------------------+
|+--------------------+|
||AMTRAK ACELA EXPRESS||
|+--------------------+|
+----------------------+

The Amtrak® AcelaSM (pronounced “ah-CELL-ah”) Express is a new high-speed
electric train built for Amtrak by the companies that manufacture the
Learjet (Bombardier) and the French TGV train (ALSTOM). Each Acela Express
trainset consists of five passenger cars (one First class and four Business
class), a café car, and two 6,000 hp Power Cars (locomotives), one at each
end. Each Power Car has a pantograph that draws down power from the overhead
electrical lines (the catenary). The trainset is semi-permanently coupled,
and there is effectively no slack between the cars. The Acela Express
trainset uses a state-of-the-art “tilt” system that allows the train to take
curves at top speeds of up to 165 mph (265 km/h) on the test track.

The Acela Express uses computer technology in almost every system on the
train. Digital displays in the cab show the train’s status and operational
data such as speed, braking, and tractive effort. The Automatic Train
Control (ATC) system ensures that the train obeys signals and speed limits.
If the engineer fails to observe speed limits or to slow the train to the
appropriate speed upon receiving an approach or stop signal, the ATC system
slows the train automatically. If the engineer fails to acknowledge this
change within five seconds, full brakes are applied (this is called a
"penalty brake" application). An Alerter system also sounds an alarm if the
train’s controls are not operated during a 25-second period. The engineer
must respond to this alarm within 15 seconds or the brakes will be applied
and the power will be shut down, bringing the train to a halt.

The Acela Express uses several different types of brakes. The dynamic brakes
can dissipate braking energy electrically either by regeneration by returning
the energy to the catenary or rheostatically by converting the energy to
heat. Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes with an air backup provide
the primary air brake system. Disc brakes provide the majority of pneumatic
braking, while tread brakes provide supplemental braking and also keep the
wheels clean for maximum adhesion between the wheel and the rail. The Brake
Control Computer blends the dynamic and air braking systems to provide
smooth, efficient braking with minimal wear-and-tear on the components.

+--------------------------------------+
|Amtrak® AcelaSM Express Specifications|
+--------------------------------------+

Locomotive type: Bombardier ALSTOM Consortium high-speed electric power car
Power source: Catenary from stationary electric generator
Power, each power car: 6,169 hp; 4,600 kilowatts
Max. speed: 165 mph (265.4 km/h)
Height: 14 ft, 2 in (4.3 m)
Width: 10 ft, 5 in (3.2 m)
Length, each power car: 69 ft, 7 in (21.2 m)
Length, trainset: 663 ft, 9 in (202.3 m)
Weight, each power car: 200,000 lb (90,720 kg)
Weight, trainset: 1,171,000 lb (531,166.7 kg)
Max. short time tractive effort,
each power car: 49,000 lb (22,226 kg) (Front & rear power car
combined effort: 98,000 lb)
Wheel configuration,
each power car: Eight 40-inch diameter wheels in B-B configuration
(two sets of two driven axles)
Brakes: Air brakes, 26-L compatible. Computer controlled, with
independent air brakes in locomotive; Electro-pneumatic;
Dynamic brakes: rheostatic and regenerative

+-------------+
|+-----------+|
||ACELA HHP-8||
|+-----------+|
+-------------+

The dual cab, 8,000 hp AcelaSM HHP-8 (sometimes called the HHL, the
manufacturer’s abbreviation for “High Horsepower Locomotive”) is by far the
most powerful locomotive in Train Simulator. It is also the only Train
Simulator electric locomotive not permanently coupled into a trainset. The
HHP-8 is designed to operate singly, or in a consist with only one other
active locomotive, pulling up to 18 passenger cars. A typical consist would
be 8 to 10 passenger cars with the occasional inclusion of a mail car at the
rear of the consist. The locomotive has cabs at both ends for bi-directional
operation. It also has an independent brake—an air brake that can be applied
to the locomotive only.

+-----------------------------------------------+
|Amtrak® AcelaSM HHP-8 Locomotive Specifications|
+-----------------------------------------------+

Locomotive type: Bombardier ALSTOM Consortium dual cab
high-speed electric power car
Power source: Catenary from stationary electric generator
Power: 8,046 hp; 6,000 kilowatts
Max. speed: 135 mph (217 km/h)
Height: 14 ft, 5 in (4.4 m)
Width: 10 ft, 5 in (3.2 m)
Length: 67 ft, 1 in (20.4 m)
Weight: 111 U.S. tons (100.7 metric tons)
Max. short time tractive effort: 71,240 lb (32,314 kg)
Wheel configuration: Eight 40-inch diameter wheels in B-B configuration
(two sets of two driven axles)
Brakes: Same as Acela Express above, plus an
independent/locomotive brake

======================================================
|   		 PART: 10 - OPERATIONS  	     |
======================================================

To complete Train Simulator Activities, you need to know more about
railroading than just how to operate a train—you’ve got to learn the basic
railroading rules and procedures for moving your train smoothly and on time.
In this chapter on railroad operations you’ll learn about timetables and work
orders, coupling and uncoupling, signals, speed limits, and more.

+----------------------+
|+--------------------+|
||PASSENGER OPERATIONS||
|+--------------------+|
+----------------------+

Passenger railroading is about safely moving passengers from one place to
another in comfort and on time. In the Train Simulator Passenger Activities,
you operate one of seven different locomotives on one of five different
routes. There’s a big difference between steam, diesel, and electric trains,
and between landscapes in the U.S., Great Britain, Austria, and Japan. In
terms of the operational procedures you need to follow though, all Passenger
Activities are quite similar.

+-----------------------+
|Following the timetable|
+-----------------------+

Passenger trains generally run according to a tight timetable (most freight
trains don’t). In Train Simulator, you’ll find the timetable in the
Operations Notebook. In order to complete an Activity successfully, you must
stick to your timetable.

You can refer to the timetable at any time during an Activity. Just press F11
to bring up the Operations Notebook, and then click the Timetable tab.

Instead of having to constantly refer to the complete timetable, you can also
get the scheduled arrival and departure time for the next scheduled station
stop by referring to the Next Station Display driving aid (press F10). The
Next Station Display shows the distance to the next station. To learn more,
see the “Driving Aids” section of PART: 5 - Tools for Driving.

+--------------------+
|Stopping at stations|
+--------------------+

As you approach a station, ring the engine bell (if your train has one) and
dim your headlights (as a courtesy to passengers on the platform). Slow down
and try to stop with as many cars as possible alongside the platform, to make
it easy for passengers to get off and onto the train quickly. The ideal
stopping location depends on the size of your train; the locomotive may have
to be stopped beyond the platform.

After stopping, press the ENTER key to initiate the unloading/loading
process. Based on how many cars are next to the platform (the more the
better) and the number of passengers who want to get on and off the train,
the projected “load time” appears on the Next Station Display. (Note that in
Train Simulator there are no people on the platform; the procedure just adds
realism to the station experience.) At the scheduled departure time (or as
soon as all the passengers are loaded if you’re running late), the conductor
signals you to depart by sounding a whistle or a buzzer, or giving you
permission to proceed via radio. What you hear depends on which route you’re
on. Never leave a station before the conductor signals you to do so, or if
the signal ahead is indicating Stop.

+--------------------+
|+------------------+|
||FREIGHT OPERATIONS||
|+------------------+|
+--------------------+

Freight railroading is about moving cargo loaded into freight cars from one
place to another. In the Train Simulator Freight Activities, you operate
either a Dash 9 or GP38-2 diesel locomotive on the Marias Pass route. In Road
Activities, you haul trains along the Marias Pass main line. In Local
Activities, you pick up and drop off cars at industries along the Kalispell
branch. In Yard Activities, you sort and assemble individual cars into trains
in the Whitefish Yard. In all three types of Activities, you need to be
familiar with the freight procedures explained in this section.

+------------------------+
|Following the work order|
+------------------------+

A work order is a list of tasks to perform during an Activity. Most Passenger
Activities don’t have work orders—all Freight Activities do. You’ll find the
work order for your run on the Work Order page of the Operations Notebook.
There are four types of work order tasks in Train Simulator:

[*] Pick-up: Couple your train to one or more cars or locomotives left at a
specific location.

[*] Drop-off: Leave one or more cars or locomotives (or your entire train)
in a specific location.

[*] Make a consist: Assemble a consist that contains only specific cars
and/or locomotives.

[*] Make a consist in a specific location: Assemble a consist that contains
only specific cars and/or locomotives and drop them off at a specific
location.

You can refer to the work order at any time during an Activity. Just press
F11 to bring up the Operations Notebook, then click the Work Order tab. Your
adherence to the work order is logged and presented in your Activity
Evaluation.

+------------------+
|+----------------+|
||MANUAL SWITCHING||
|+----------------+|
+------------------+

Switches on the Marias Pass Kalispell branch and in the Whitefish Yard are
not under the dispatcher’s control. You’ll have to move your cars to a
siding—a section of track branching off of the main track used for storing
cars and locomotives. To get to the sidings specified in your work order,
you’ll have to manually throw switches.

Use the Switching driving aid (press F8) to see how the switch in front and
behind you is set (left, center, or right), then click the appropriate arrow
to change it. For details, see the “Driving Aids” section of PART: 5 - Tools
for Driving. You can also toggle the next switch by pressing the G key. To
toggle the next switch behind the train, press SHIFT+G.

Note: In "Explore the Route" Activities, there is no dispatcher, so you must
manually throw all switches yourself.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------------------------------+|
||IDENTIFYING LOCOMOTIVES, CARS, SIDINGS, AND STATION PLATFORMS||
|+-------------------------------------------------------------+|
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Each locomotive and car in Train Simulator has a unique number, and each
siding and station platform has a unique name. You can toggle the
station/siding names on and off by pressing F6, and the car numbers on and
off by pressing F7. When turned on, numbers and names appear, floating above
their respective locomotives, cars, sidings, and station platforms. This
makes these items and locations easier to identify. In Yard Activities, it’s
also useful to see a top-down view of the entire yard. To switch to Overhead
view, press the 7 key.


+-----------------------+
|+---------------------+|
||COUPLING & UNCOUPLING||
|+---------------------+|
+-----------------------+

Coupling and uncoupling cars and locomotives is a fundamental skill you’ll
need to master, especially for Freight Activities. With a little practice,
picking up and setting out cars on sidings, assembling consists in a yard,
and cutting in additional locomotives when ascending steep grades will become
second nature. In the real world, you have some help: crew members on the
ground connect and disconnect brake hoses and cables, set and release brakes
on the cars, and guide you by radio and hand signals. In Train Simulator,
the process is simplified.

Note: The 2000, 7000 LSE, and AcelaSM Express are semi-permanently coupled
trainsets. The AcelaSM HHP-8 is the only electric locomotive included in
Train Simulator that can be coupled to and uncoupled from its cars.

Coupling should always be done at low speeds (no faster than 2 mph, or 3
km/h) to avoid damaging equipment. Just move slowly toward the locomotive or
car you want to couple to, and the couplers will automatically close when
contact is made. Use Coupler view (press the 6 key) to watch the coupling
process from an overhead vantage point, and to visually inspect the couplers
to make sure they are locked. A distance indicator tells you how far apart
the two couplers are. Once you’re coupled, open the Train Operations window
(press F9) and release the hand brakes on all the cars you coupled to. To
learn more about Coupler view and the Train Operations window, see PART: 5
Tools for Driving.

Uncoupling requires the use of the Train Operations window (press F9). After
stopping, apply the hand brakes on the locomotives and cars that are to be
uncoupled (so they don’t roll away after being uncoupled). Then, open the
desired couplers. Close the Train Operations window, and move your consist
away from the equipment you just uncoupled.

+----------------------+
|+--------------------+|
||USING MULTIPLE UNITS||
|+--------------------+|
+----------------------+

More than one locomotive is often required to supply enough horsepower to
pull a long, heavy train, especially up a steep mountain grade. Remotely
controlled locomotives are called "distributed power units" (DPUs),
controlled from the lead locomotive. The supporting manned locomotives are
called “helpers,” and are sometimes added temporarily to the end of a train
to help push it up a short, steep grade.

In Train Simulator, while you can couple more than one locomotive to a train,
you cannot individually control the additional locomotives. They will simply
mirror the performance of the lead unit you’re controlling.

Note: In Train Simulator, you can couple only locomotives and cars that have
the same type of couplers. If you want to add more locomotives, they must be
the same type (steam/diesel/electric) as the lead locomotive.

+-----------+
|+---------+|
||REFUELING||
|+---------+|
+-----------+

If your train is immobilized due to running out of diesel fuel, coal, or
water, the Activity ends immediately. You can see your fuel, coal, water, and
sand levels in the Train Operations window (F9).

If an Activity requires you to get more diesel fuel, coal, or water, the
Activity Briefing specifies a stop at a refueling station, coal tower, or
water tower). Steam locomotives can also get water while underway, via
"water scoops" that scoop water up from troughs in the track.

To learn more about refueling and how to use water scoops, see the online
Help (press F1).

+----------------------------------------+
|+--------------------------------------+|
||PREVENTING ACCIDENTS AT ROAD CROSSINGS||
|+--------------------------------------+|
+----------------------------------------+

Failing to provide adequate warning of your train's approach can cause
accidents, which in Train Simulator makes the Activity end immediately. The
best way to warn people is to make noise, but not so much that you disturb
nearby residents. Thus, it’s not surprising that railroad policies on
whistles and horns vary depending on the country and the era:

+----------------------------------------------+
|Route Train Simulator horn/whistle requirement|
+----------------------------------------------+

Marias Pass Begin sounding horn (press SPACEBAR) at least 1/4 mile (.4 km)
away from road crossing. Prolong or repeat signal until locomotive is in
crossing.

Northeast Corridor None. No road crossings.

Innsbruck-St. Anton None. Gatekeepers ensure clear crossings.

Settle & Carlisle Line None. Gatekeepers ensure clear crossings.

Tokyo-Hakone Heavily residential; sound horn only in an emergency.

Hisatsu Line Sound horn only in an emergency.

+----------------------------+
|+--------------------------+|
||BELLS, WHISTLES, AND HORNS||
|+--------------------------+|
+----------------------------+

In Train Simulator, you don’t have to sound your bell, whistle, or horn
anywhere except at ungated road crossings on the Marias Pass route, as
explained above. But for a more realistic experience:

[*] Ring the bell (if your train has one) before moving.
[*] Ring the bell when arriving at a station (until stopped).
[*] Ring the bell when moving through a yard.
[*] Sound the whistle or horn to warn people or animals of your approach,
using a quick succession of short bursts. To clear animals from the track,
first dim the headlights, then sound the horn.
[*] Sound the whistle or horn before entering tunnels or crossing bridges.
[*] Sound the whistle or horn frequently when weather conditions impair
visibility.
[*] When approaching a crossing, use the whistle or horn signal generally
accepted by most American railroads: LONG LONG SHORT LONG, with the last long
sound continuing as the locomotive passes through the crossing.

Note: On the Dash 9, AcelaSM Express, and AcelaSM HHP-8 locomotives, the
engine bell also rings whenever the horn button is pressed.

+-------------------+
|+-----------------+|
||TRACKSIDE SIGNAGE||
|+-----------------+|
+-------------------+

Next to the track on every route, you’ll see a variety of signs that provide
you with advance warning of things like road crossings and speed limit
changes. See the Quick Reference Card or online Help for a complete list,
with pictures and their meanings.

+-----------+
|+---------+|
||SIGNALING||
|+---------+|
+-----------+

All railroads need a system to prevent two trains from being in the same
place at the same time. Over the years, around the world, the systems for
controlling trains have become increasingly sophisticated. In Microsoft®
Train Simulator, control is exercised primarily via dispatchercontrolled
signals.

Most of the track on Train Simulator routes is signaled track: lights or
semaphore arms are mounted next to or above the track. You must obey the
signals!

Japanese Terms:

[*] Shinkoo: Forward
[*] Jokoo Yokoku: Prepare for
slow speed
[*] Jokoo Kaijo: Cancel slow speed
[*] Gensoku: Slow down
[*] Chuui: Careful/Warning
[*] Seigen: Limit (as in Seigen
55, “Speed limit 55”)
[*] Ittan teishi: Stopping
[*] Torikeshi: Cancelled

Note: On unsignaled track (commonly called "dark territory" in North
America), safe operating distance between trains is ensured with “track
warrants” that grant trains exclusive permission to occupy sections of track
between certain mileposts or stations during certain time windows. In Train
Simulator, the only unsignaled track is the Kalispell branch of the Marias
Pass route.

+--------------------+
|Learning the signals|
+--------------------+

Refer to the Quick Reference Card to find a table of all the signal aspects
(the colored lights or semaphore arm positions), and their indications (what
the aspects mean), categorized by route. You’ll realize quickly that although
different routes have unique signal aspects, their indications are often the
same. For example, a green light on the Marias Pass route, and a raised
semaphore arm on the Settle to Carlisle route look very different, but they
both mean essentially the same thing: you can proceed.

+---------------+
|Obeying signals|
+---------------+

As you approach a signal you must identify which one applies to the track
that your train is operating on, and observe its indication. Watch the
signal and its changes until your train has passed it. For more information,
see the "Driving Aids" section in PART: 5 - Tools for Driving.

Note: For more information about Train Simulator signaling, see the online
Help (press F1).

+--------------+
|+------------+|
||SPEED LIMITS||
|+------------+|
+--------------+

As you operate a train in Train Simulator, you’re expected to obey all speed
limits. Speeding is not only against the rules, it’s dangerous! A train
that’s moving too fast can derail on curves and switches, collide with other
trains, become a runaway, or break apart. As an engineer, it’s imperative
that you be aware of the speed limits for the route you’re driving and obey
them.

The Track Monitor driving aid helps you maintain speed limits as you drive.
For more information, see the "Driving Aids" section of PART: 5 - Tools for
Driving.

+---------------------+
|Types of speed limits|
+---------------------+

There are three types of speed limits in Train Simulator: maximum speed
limits, permanent reduced speed limits, and temporary speed restrictions.

Note: Speed limit signs look different on different routes, so see the Quick
Reference Card for illustrations.

+-------------------+
|Maximum speed limit|
+-------------------+

Every route in Train Simulator has a Maximum speed limit at which you are
permitted to drive if there is no Permanent Reduced speed limit or temporary
speed restrictions specified for a given track section.

+-----------------------------+
|Permanent Reduced speed limit|
+-----------------------------+

Permanent Reduced speed limits are specified for certain sections of track
that require the train to operate at a slower speed than the Maximum speed
limit, such as on curves, bridges, and in tunnels.

+----------------------------+
|Temporary speed restrictions|
+----------------------------+

Your Activity Briefing may note areas of temporarily restricted speed due to
track conditions, maintenance, or other hazards. Each railroad has its own
means of indicating temporary speed restrictions. In Train Simulator,
Restricted Areas are marked with signs or colored trackside flags.

+----------------+
|Restricted Speed|
+----------------+

In Train Simulator, “Restricted Speed” is defined as a speed no greater than
15 mph, or 25 km/h. You must move at Restricted Speed:

[*] In flagged Restricted Areas, as explained above.
[*] Within yard limits.
[*] When reversing.
[*] After passing a signal indicating Restricting.
[*] After stopping, then passing, a signal indicating Stop and Proceed.
[*] After stopping, then passing, a signal indicating Stop
(with the dispatcher/signalman’s permission).
[*] When you pass a flag or signal requiring movement at Restricted Speed
(for example, a signal indicating Stop and Proceed), you must move at
Restricted Speed (not faster than 15 mph, or 25 km/h) until the leading
wheels of the locomotive have passed the next governing signal or the end of
the block system.


======================================================
|   	      PART: 11 - THE ACTIVITIES  	     |
======================================================

The Activities are where you get to put your skills to the test in a
realistic passenger or freight scenario while operating a steam, diesel, or
electric train. You’ll read the briefing, complete your assignment on
schedule, and then review your evaluation. Keep practicing—you’ll be
railroading like a pro before you know it. In this chapter, we’ll explore the
Activities—the essence of the Microsoft® Train Simulator experience.

+----------+
|+--------+|
||THE GOAL||
|+--------+|
+----------+

Your overall goal in a Train Simulator Activity is simple: complete the
assignment presented in the briefing. Along the way you’ll be evaluated on
your ability to follow railroad rules and procedures in four areas:

[*] Operations
[*] Timetable/Work order
[*] Speed limits
[*] Train handling

+----------------+
|+--------------+|
||ACTIVITY TYPES||
|+--------------+|
+----------------+

Whether you’re attracted to the romance of steam, the sheer power of diesel,
or the high-speed thrills of electric railroading, there are Train Simulator
Activities designed just for you. On the Train Simulator Home screen, select
Drive a Train. You’ll be taken to the Route & Activity Selection screen,
where you can select one of six different historical routes. Then, choose an
Activity. There are six different types of Activities in Train Simulator:


Activity Type 		Route 		Description
Explore the Route 	All routes 	Drive freely along the route without
					being evaluated. Go where you want by
					manually setting switches as you
					approach them.

Passenger 		All routes 	Drive a passenger train, making
					scheduled stops at except stations
					according to a timetable.

Road Freight 		Marias Pass 	Deliver a freight train from one
					location to another on a main line.

Local Freight 		Marias Pass 	Operate a freight train on a local
					run, making pickups and drop-offs at
					industries along the way.

Yard Freight 		Marias Pass 	Solve complex switching puzzles from
					the cab of a yard locomotive as you
					assemble individual cars into long
					trains.

Player-created 		All routes 	Complete a passenger or freight
					Activity that you've designed
					yourself using the Activity Editor.
					(For more information, see PART: 13
					- Editors & Tools.)

+----------------------------+
|+--------------------------+|
||BEFORE THE ACTIVITY BEGINS||
|+--------------------------+|
+----------------------------+

After choosing an Activity and clicking the Start button on the Route &
Activity selection screen, you’ll see the train from the locomotive’s cab,
with the simulation paused. The Operations Notebook is also displayed.

As an engineer, it’s your responsibility to become familiar with the details
of the assignment you’re about to undertake. Take some time to study the
contents of the Operations Notebook’s six tabs (Key Commands, Briefing,
Timetable, Work Order, Procedures, Evaluation).

Before you start driving:

[1] Read your briefing.
[2] Review your timetable and work order.
[3] Review the locomotive operating procedures and keyboard commands.

When you’ve collected your thoughts and are ready to start the run, close the
Operations Notebook and you’re ready to go!

To learn more about the Operations Notebook, see PART: 5 - Tools for Driving.

+---------------------+
|+-------------------+|
||DURING THE ACTIVITY||
|+-------------------+|
+---------------------+

Once underway, you’ll have your hands full. Operating a train is more
challenging than most people realize. To learn the tricks of the trade, be
sure to familiarize yourself with this Engineer’s Handbook, complete the
interactive Tutorials, and look at the topics in the onscreen Help (press
F1).

+------------------------+
|What you’re evaluated on|
+------------------------+

As you drive from station to station or complete a work order, you’ll be
evaluated in four areas:

Operations
""""""""""
You must avoid doing things that compromise safety or your ability to
complete the Activity. If you commit a major error like passing a Stop
signal without permission, breaking a coupler, or derailing, the Activity
ends immediately. Smaller mistakes are simply logged and presented as part of
your Activity Evaluation. For more information, see the onscreen Help
(press F1) and individual Activity briefings.

Timetable/Work order
""""""""""""""""""""
Every Activity has a timetable and/or a work order that is displayed in the
Operations Notebook. A timetable is a schedule for the run and you must stop
at all the stations listed. If you fail to make a scheduled stop, arrive
late, or depart early, each error is logged. A work order is a list of tasks
to complete, such as picking up or dropping off cars, delivering a consist of
freight cars, or rescuing a crippled passenger train. If you fail to complete
all the tasks in a work order, each error is logged.

Speed limits
""""""""""""
Speed limits exist to protect railroad workers, passengers, freight, and
equipment. You must obey all permanent and temporary speed limits as you
drive.

Train handling
""""""""""""""
As you operate a train, you must keep passenger comfort and freight
durability levels in mind, accelerating and decelerating carefully to avoid
disturbing passengers and damaging merchandise. These levels are different
depending on exactly what (or who) is on your train. In Train Simulator,
lumber and commuters are more forgiving than new automobiles and royalty. If
you jostle the passengers or freight beyond acceptable limits, each error is
logged.

To learn more about proper operating procedures in Train Simulator, see
PART: 10 - Operations; the three How to Drive... chapters; and the onscreen
Help (press F1).

+------------------+
|Using driving aids|
+------------------+

Popup driving aids can help make up for the sensory limitations of a computer
simulation. For example, the Track Monitor shows the signals and speed limits
along your route. Other driving aids help you read signals, manually throw
switches not controlled by the dispatcher and follow your timetable.

To learn more about driving aids, see PART: 5 - Tools for Driving.

Note: The keyboard commands that bring up the individual driving aids can be
found on the Quick Reference Card, on the Key Commands tab of the Operations
Notebook, and in the online Help (F1).

+-----------------------------+
|Using the Operations Notebook|
+-----------------------------+

You can review your briefing, timetable, work order, locomotive operating
procedures, and keyboard commands at any time during an Activity. Just press
F11 to display the Operations Notebook. To see how well you’re doing, click
the Evaluation tab.

To learn more about the Operations Notebook and driving aids, see PART: 5 -
Tools for Driving.

+------------------+
|Saving an Activity|
+------------------+

Some Train Simulator Activities are quite lengthy, simulating an entire
real-world railroad shift. The good news is that you don’t have to sit at
your computer all day or night (unless you want to)! You can easily save an
Activity-in-progress to finish another time. Just press the ESC key and
follow the onscreen instructions. For details, see the onscreen Help (press
F1).

If you want to save your Activity without interrupting your run, just press
the Quick Save key (F2).

+-------------------------+
|+-----------------------+|
||AFTER THE ACTIVITY ENDS||
|+-----------------------+|
+-------------------------+

When an Activity ends (because you completed it, made an Activity-ending
error, or quit), the Activity Evaluation screen appears. Here you’ll find a
summary of your performance, and the option to view a more detailed
evaluation. The evaluation is saved automatically so you can watch your
skills improve over time, and to savor as you strive for that "perfect" run.


======================================================
|   	        PART: 12 - THE ROUTES   	     |
======================================================

In Train Simulator, you’ve got six detailed routes to drive or ride, spanning
several continents and two time periods. Whether you choose the route from
the Introductory Train Ride screen or select the challenge of operating a
train yourself, you’ll find these routes make the railroading experience
stimulating and challenging.

+-------------+
|+-----------+|
||MARIAS PASS||
|+-----------+|
+-------------+

Location: Montana, USA
Route length: 152 miles (245 km)
Railroad: The Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company (BNSF)
Preferred Player-drivable locomotive: Dash 9 and GP38-2 diesel-electric
locomotives
Computer-controlled locomotives and trains on route: Genesis P40 (AMD 103)
Empire Builder, SD40-2, GP38-2

Just as Europeans spent years looking for a Northwest Passage around North
America to get their ships to Asia faster, so the American railroads searched
for a suitable pass over the Rocky Mountains in the northwest United States
to move freight faster from east to west. The Marias River in Montana had
been named by Meriwether Lewis in 1806, but the pass was not discovered until
1889, by John Stevens, an engineer working for the Great Northern Railway.
Marias Pass is the lowest pass through the Rocky Mountains in the United
States north of New Mexico.

Today, the rail line through Marias Pass is operated by the Burlington
Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), which uses the route to run priority
intermodal trains, coal, and general freight across the country from Chicago
to Seattle and Portland. Amtrak also uses the route to host their twice-daily
 Empire Builder passenger service.

Microsoft® Train Simulator includes the mainline portion of the route from
Shelby to Whitefish, and the branch line from Columbia Falls to Kalispell.
You can haul freight over the pass, skirting the southern border of Glacier
National Park, or make local freight deliveries along the Kalispell line.

+--------------------+
|+------------------+|
||NORTHEAST CORRIDOR||
|+------------------+|
+--------------------+

Location: Northeast United States
Route length: 133 miles (214 km)
Railroad: Amtrak
Preferred player-drivable locomotive: AcelaSM Express and AcelaSM HHP-8
high-speed electric locomotives
Computer-controlled trains on route: Genesis™ P40 (AMD 103), GE E-60-CP

The Amtrak® AcelaSM Express is a new high-speed service between Boston,
Providence, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
Acela Express service has begun to compete with airline shuttles for business
travel between these Northeast United States cities. Current services, such
as the NortheastDirect, are being converted to Acela Regional and Acela
Commuter services.

Having conducted extensive surveys and interviews with customers, Amtrak
intends this service to be first class all the way. Everything from the
ticketing process, to station design, to electrical outlets at every seat, to
larger, more accessible bathrooms, has been designed to "bring business rail
travel into the 21st century."

Train Simulator includes the portion of the route from Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, to Washington, D.C. This route uses tracks dating back to a
number of famous Northeast railroads. This route is electrified over its
entire length, which allows the efficient operation of high-speed trainsets.
You’ll zoom past major metropolitan areas as well as coastlines and forests.
The track’s maximum speed limit is 125 mph and there are no level crossings
(roads crossing the tracks) to slow you down.

+-----------------------+
|+---------------------+|
||INNSBRUCK - ST. ANTON||
|+---------------------+|
+-----------------------+

Location: Austrian Alps
Route length: 63 miles (101 km)
Railroad: Orient-Express
Preferred player-drivable locomotive: Gölsdorf 380 steam locomotive
Computer-controlled trains on route: 310.23

Traveling by rail across Europe at the end of the 19th century was difficult,
uncomfortable, and burdensome. So it was a somewhat revolutionary idea when
George Nagelmackers created la Compagnie des Wagons-Lits (CIWL,
http://www.wagons-lits-paris.com) whose most famous train, the
Orient-Express, would travel from Paris to Bulgaria from 1883 onward. The
Orient-Express, like its other famous sisterships such as the Blue Train, is
still synonymous with luxury, glamor, and adventure. In its heyday of the
1920s and 1930s, the list of passengers read like a Who’s Who of
international royalty and celebrities. The Orient-Express still enjoys a
fantastic prestige worldwide with its characteristic blue and cream livery,
decorated with the two-golden lion monogram. Apart from its modern activities
in the travel business, Compagnie des Wagons-Lits is still active in
preserving the legend of the Orient-Express and all related properties,
including historical archives, posters, and photos, as well as public
catalogues of products on the theme "le Voyage à la Belle Epoque."

The original service consisted entirely of sumptuously appointed restaurant
and sleeping cars, plus baggage and mail cars. Although most famous for its
Paris-Bulgaria route, there were many routes and destinations serviced by the
Orient-Express: London & Paris to Venice, Rome, Prague & Istanbul. The
opening of the Simplon Tunnel in the Swiss Alps allowed speedy service
between London and Venice, and the Arlberg tunnel in the Austrian Alps linked
Paris to Vienna. Although diplomats, royalty, nobility, and celebrities used
the service, it was frequently disrupted by trade restrictions, border
disputes, and wars.

Train Simulator includes the portion of the route from St. Anton and the
Arlberg Pass to Innsbruck as it was in the late 1920s. You’ll travel past
spectacular alpine peaks and visit beautiful Tyrolean villages in pastoral
valleys. We’ve recreated the line as it was before it was electrified.
Driving a steam locomotive is hard work, so remember to visit the piano bar
car for a taste of luxury and relaxation.

+------------------------+
|+----------------------+|
||SEATLE & CARLISLE LINE||
|+----------------------+|
+------------------------+

Location: Northwestern England
Route length: 72 miles (116 km)
Railway, circa 1930: Midland Railway
Player-drivable locomotive: LNER No. 4472 Flying Scotsman steam locomotive
Locomotive owner, circa 1930: London and North Eastern Railway (LNER)
Locomotive owner, today: Flying Scotsman Railway
Computer-controlled trains on route: The Royal Scot (Royal Scot Class),
Pendennis Castle (Castle Class)

Built in the 1870s to provide a faster route for the growing Midland Railway
Company’s traffic between England and Scotland, the Settle & Carlisle Railway
("the S&C") is considered the most dramatic train line in England. The line
travels through Yorkshire Dales National Park and into the Pennine Chain,
skirting Lake District National Park to the west.

Hundreds of railroad builders (“navvies”) lost their lives building the line,
from a combination of accidents, fights, and smallpox outbreaks. In
particular, building the Ribbleshead (then Batty Moss) viaduct, with its 24
massive stone arches 104 feet (32 meters) above the moor, caused such loss of
life that the railway paid for an expansion of the local graveyard.

The Midland Company wanted a fast line and specified gradients no greater
than 1 in 100, which meant they couldn’t always take the shortest path from
point A to point B, giving rise to the nickname "the Long Drag." On a heavy
train, a fireman could use up to five tons of coal, and the line was
occasionally used as a test track to compare the motive power of various
locomotives under consideration by the railroad. The S&C is a challenging
line for the driver and fireman in any weather, but its challenges are
multiplied during spring and autumn windstorms and winter snows.

Train Simulator includes the entire line from Settle to Carlisle as it was in
the late 1920s. You’ll pass through beautiful countryside, where stone walls
separate fields of barley, cow pastures, and country lanes. You’ll need to
skillfully control your use of steam as you climb up to the wild Blea Moor,
and then carefully make your way down the grade while keeping your passengers
safe and comfortable. Can you keep up with Flying Scotsman’s illustrious
history of on-time arrival?

+--------------+
|+------------+|
||TOKYO-HAKONE||
|+------------+|
+--------------+

Location: Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefectures, Japan
Route length: 55 miles (88 km)
Railroad: Odakyu Electric Railway Company
Player-drivable locomotive: 2000 and 7000 LSE Series electric locomotives
Computer-controlled trains on route: 30000 EXE

Odakyu’s Odawara line runs from bustling Shinjuku station in downtown Tokyo
to the city of Odawara. The line is one of the longest private railroad lines
in Japan. The Odawara line has become known for connecting Tokyo and Hakone
with the luxurious “Romance Car” express service, but it also serves many
metropolitan-area business commuters. The line is famous for its stunning
scenery and seasonal foliage. Hakone is a world-famous spa resort with
spectacular views of nearby Mt. Fuji.

Service from Shinjuku to Hakone-Yumoto began in August 1950. The Hakone
Express is now one of the most popular rail excursions in Japan.

Train Simulator includes the line from Shinjuku through Odawara to Hakone
Yumoto. You’ll travel from downtown Tokyo, through the suburbs, and into the
countryside before you start your final climb to Hakone. You can drive the
commuter train (2000 Series), which makes frequent stops throughout the city
and suburbs. Or, you can choose the famous Hakone Express, reaching speeds of
68.4 mph (110 km/h) as your passengers enjoy the luxury of the Romance Car.

+--------------+
|+------------+|
||HISATSU LINE||
|+------------+|
+--------------+

Location: Kyushu island, Japan
Route length: 53 miles (86 km)
Railroad: Kyushu Railway Company
Player-drivable locomotive: KIHA 31
Computer-controlled trains on route: KIHA 140

Constructed in the first decade of the 1900s, the Hisatsu line was the main
railroad line in Kagoshima prefecture on the southern Japanese island of
Kyushu. A number of people died during construction of the line, especially
digging Yatake Tunnel. Two stone plaques were made in order to honor all
those who put tremendous effort to make the tunnel and in order to remember
the hardship of building the Hisatsu Line: "Now we are easily able to
transport people and heavy goods far distances because this railway travels
through difficult geographic barriers as if it travels through flat land."
Isaburo Yamagata placed the first plaque at the entrance of Yatake Tunnel,
facing toward Hitoyoshi. Shinpei Goto placed the other plaque at the other
entrance of the tunnel, facing toward Yoshimatsu. Therefore, trains going
toward the plaque placed by Isaburo Yamagata are called "Isaburo" and trains
going toward the other plaque placed by Shinpei Goto are called "Shinpei."

In the line’s heyday in the early 1900s, steam locomotives traversed the
line, hauling freight and passengers. Today, the Hisatsu line is used mainly
for scenic day trips with trains consisting of one or two cars. Occasionally,
historic steam locomotives are used for special excursions.

The section between Yatsushiro and Hitoyoshi is called the River Line because
it runs beside the Kuma river. There are 24 railroad tunnels in this section
of the line. The section between Hitoyoshi and Yoshimatsu is called the
Mountain Line. Trains climb the steep grade to the mountain pass (at 1772
feet (540 meters) above sea level) using two switchbacks and a loop.
"Isaburo/Shinpei," the sightseeing train, runs on this section and stops at
viewpoints for sightseeing—it has one of the three best rail views in Japan.
Long station stops allow passengers to get off the train and explore the
surrounding area before reboarding.

======================================================
|   	    PART: 13 - THE EDITORS AND TOOLS         |
======================================================

In addition to driving the different trains and routes included in Microsoft®
Train Simulator, you can tap your own creative resources by using the
Editors and Tools. With these tools you can create your own routes, import
3-D objects into Train Simulator from other sources, and create your own
custom Activities.

+------------------+
|+----------------+|
||BEFORE YOU BEGIN||
|+----------------+|
+------------------+

To successfully create and edit your own Train Simulator components, it’s
important to understand these tools are for experienced computer users only,
and that they are not supported by Microsoft Technical Support.

Note, however, that each Editor and Tool has its own online Help system.

To launch an Editor:

[1] From the Microsoft Windows® Start menu, select Programs.
[2] Select Microsoft Games.
[3] Select Train Simulator.
[4] Select Editors and Tools.
[5] Select the editor you want.

+-----------------------+
|+---------------------+|
||THE EDITORS AND TOOLS||
|+---------------------+|
+-----------------------+

+-------------------+
|The Activity Editor|
+-------------------+

The Activities have been designed to help you learn to operate the different
locomotives while providing interesting story-based scenarios to complete.
With the Activity Editor, you can create your own Activities or modify
existing ones. You decide whether the Activity is Passenger or Freight, what
the objectives are, and how much time the player has to successfully complete
the Activity. You also select the time of day, the weather conditions, the
season and the amount of fuel the player starts with, as well as hazards such
as animals on the tracks or signals that aren’t functioning properly.
Creating interesting Activities can be a fun and creative way to expand your
Train Simulator experience.

+----------------+
|The Route Editor|
+----------------+

With the Route Editor you can modify any of the six routes included with
Train Simulator. You can also create custom routes that are based in the
real world or come from your own imagination. Using this Editor you can lay
track, flatten or raise the terrain, place trees, buildings, signals,
sidings, and many other objects in your route. Try starting with the basic
terrain from any part of the world by using the Route Geography Creator (see
below for details).

+--------------+
|The Cab Editor|
+--------------+

The cab is the interior of the locomotive as seen by the engineer. With the
Cab Editor you can create an interactive view of the cab for a locomotive.
You can design where you want to place working levers, warning lights,
display screens, and gauges. All of the player-drivable locomotives included
in Train Simulator already have cab views. If you want to create your own
drivable locomotive you will need to create a cab for that locomotive.

+----------------+
|Creating Terrain|
+----------------+

Before you can lay track, you must first create the terrain in which you want
to make a route. Terrain consists of two-kilometer square sections called
terrain tiles which are generated with an editing tool. This tool converts
Digital Elevation Map (DEM) data into a set of terrain tiles that can be
loaded into the Route Editor as the first step in creating a route. Or you
can create a set of flat, blank tiles, not based on any external data source.

+-------------+
|Customization|
+-------------+

You can repaint locomotives and scenery objects with your own 2-D paint tool
and then import them for use in Train Simulator.


======================================================
| PART: 14 - CREDITS, COPYRIGHT INFO, CONTACT ME ETC |
======================================================

+---------+
|+-------+|
||WANTED!||
|+-------+|
+---------+

IMPORTANT: !!CONTRIBUTION NEEDED!!
==================================

This section is where I shall include all the things that I'm looking for
this FAQ. If you have them, please kindly send them to me at
ruchirkc@yahoo.co.in

[*] Any tips or hints
[*] Errors in the FAQ, please kindly inform me at my e-mail given above
[*] Suggestions on making the FAQ better

+------------+
|+----------+|
||CONTACT ME||
|+----------+|
+------------+

You can contact me by e-mail at ruchirkc@yahoo.co.in

You may contact me to ask questions about the game, or to correct mistakes in
my guide.

There are no guarantees that the information found in this FAQ is correct.
If something is wrong in this FAQ, then please contact me
at the address given above. If you have any questions or information you
would like to see in this FAQ, please contact me.

P.S.: Any ideas, thoughts, questions , suggestions and tips  about the  game,
whatsoever are most welcome at my e-mail address provided above. Please
provide me with the feedback, it will be a reward for me for this attempt
made by me.

I would be grateful if you wrote the subject of your e-mail as
'TrainSim FAQ'. So I would be able to organize all my feedback mails into one
folder. This way you will get a quicker response.

Also, whoever that sends me info for my faq will get credited in the
CREDIT/THANKS section and I will personally reply their mail with a thanks!

+----------------+
|+--------------+|
||CREDITS/THANKS||
|+--------------+|
+----------------+

I would like to give a special thanks to the following people/websites:

Microsoft - For making a great train simulation game
(me) - For writing this guide
GameFaqs, IGN & Neoseeker - For posting my faq on their website

I would especially like to thank Rootsecure.net for making a great ASCII Art
generator and for making it a free service so that FAQ writers like me can use
the tool

+---------------+
|+-------------+|
||MY OTHER FAQS||
|+-------------+|
+---------------+

By the way, as you all know I like writing Faq/Walkthroughs alot, and, as a
result, I like helping people on games also.

This is not the only Faq/Walkthrough I have written. There are a few more,
and more are comming in the near future.


The full list of all my Faqs/Walkthroughs completed and in writing:
===================================================================

A3 - MMORPG Faq/Walkthrough
A3 - Crafting Guide
Gunz: The Duel - MMORPG FAQ/Walkthrough
Quake III: Arena - Faq/Walkthrough
FIFA 07 - FAQ/Walkthrough
Train Simulator - FAQ/Walkthrough

+-----------------+
|+---------------+|
||VERSION HISTORY||
|+---------------+|
+-----------------+

VERSION: 1.0 - Completed the FAQ. This is the final and last version. It will
only be updated if somone e-mails me asking questions or gives me new tips...

+----------------+
|+--------------+|
||COPYRIGHT INFO||
|+--------------+|
+----------------+

This game is Copyright Microsoft. All Rights Reserved.

This FAQ is for personal use only. This is not to be used for commercial or
personal gain. Websites publishing this guide without permission will face
punishment under the law.

Sites authorized to host this file:
===================================

IGN FAQS - http://faqs.ign.com/
GameFaqs - http://www.gamefaqs.com/
NeoSeeker - http://www.neoseeker.com/

Please check the host displaying this file. If it does not correspond to any
of the above listed site urls, consider the entire text illegally hijacked,
and therefore STOLEN. Be quick to report any such criminal offences, and
your professional help will be correspondingly awarded. Thank you. =)

Offenders attempting to meddle with Copyright laws backing me and my work
will be discovered and taken care of. This action includes a discontinuation
of the text belonging to me being shown on their websites and this will come
about initially with 'kind' emails sent to the owners and if this does not
connect, sooner or later their server'll be called in to see for themselves.
Beware, charlatans. I may even demand legal monetary compensation for such
goings-on behind my back, in the near future.

NO PART OF THIS FAQ/WALKTHROUGH CAN BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, SENT OR BE DONE
ANYTHING ELSE TO WITHOUT THE WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR. PEOPLE WHO
ILLEGALLY COPY OR DO ANY OF THE ABOVE TO THIS FAQ/WALKTHROUGH ARE CRIMINALS
AND THEY WILL BE DISCOVERED AND PROSECUTED SEVERELY.

Please abide with the terms.

This document is copyright RUCHIR, 2007. All Rights Reserved.

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by their
respective trademark and copyright holders.

+----------+
|DISCLAIMER|
+----------+

There are no guarantees that the information found in this FAQ is correct.

		   _______________
  ________________/ _____________ \_____________________
 /_________________/End Of File  \______________________\
/ TrainSim         \_____________/Copyright 2007  Ruchir \
| FAQ/Walkthrough   _____________ ruchirkc@yahoo.co.in   |
| _________________/ End Of File \______________________ |
\		   \_____________/			 /
 \______________________________________________________/