POKEMON DIAMOND AND PEARL:
ELITE FOUR DOOR GLITCH GUIDE (For the Japanese Versions Only)
Author: Harry Sam "L255J" Shaw
Version Date: 4/10/08
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Copyright and Legal Information
 Exploiting the Glitch
1) Finding Darkrai
2) Finding Sheimi/Shaymin
3) Skipping the Elite Four (by leebui)
 Frequently Asked Questions
 Contact Information
 Revision History
 What to Expect in Future Updates
Note: To make navigation slightly faster, copy the whole title of any section,
including the bracketed numbering, and paste in a search to quickly go there.
 COPYRIGHT AND LEGAL INFORMATION
This may not be reproduced under any circumstances except for personal, private
use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed publicly
without advance written permission. Use of this guide on any other web site or
as a part of any public display is strictly prohibited, and a violation of
The following are the only websites that have permission to host this guide:
If you see this guide elsewhere, please bring it to my attention. I would very
appreciate it. Sometimes permission for a website to host my guides is granted
and taken away. I will always faithfully and carefully note which websites
actually do have such permission for each new version.
The Pokemon games by Game Freak have been known for their solid gameplay as
well as a healthy dosage of secrets. Aside from the standard batch of creatures
that roam the regions that you travel in, there are always a special few
Pokemon that you have the one rare opportunity to challenge and either defeat
or attempt to capture. In Pokemon Diamond and Pearl, not only is this still the
case, but to an even greater degree. You have a lot more of the rare kind this
time around, and you're still given that one measly Master Ball. It's simply
something all players of Pokemon games will have to deal with once again.
However, encounters of the rare kind do not all occur in simply the same way.
In all of the Pokemon games, there have always been a certain rare Pokemon, or
two, or more that could not be searched for and found by normal means. You
absolutely could not find these Pokemon. Nintendo usually has had this sort of
rare species reserved to be given out as a part of some kind of a promotion,
such as one for a new movie. An example is the "Holographic" Mew collectible
trading card for Pokemon: The First Movie.
Two creatures, one known as "Darkrai" (#491 in the National Pokedex), and
another known as Sheimi/Shaymin (#492 in the National Pokedex), are those two
rare Pokemon in Diamond and Pearl that cannot be found by merely looking for
them. Nintendo has set aside these fourth-generation Pokemon for a promotion.
There are a few things that the gamer can do about this:
-------------------------------- Option 1 -------------------------------------
You can wait until Nintendo does this planned promotion, and give them
whatever money that they ask for in exchange for access to these rare Pokemon
as the "bonus" gift. I'm sure that is the only reason you'd go to them anyway.
If you were interested in going through the trouble to do any of that, you'll
need to know that you are looking for two things. One of those "bonus" gifts,
that you probably went to those events for in the first place, is called the
"Member's Card". This item will allow you to enter a once-closed hotel where
you get the opportunity to confront Darkrai. The other of those "bonus" gifts
is "Oak's Letter", which upon receiving causes Professor Oak to appear standing
in front of a certain white rock at Route 224. Meeting up with him will allow
you to begin the quest to find Sheimi/Shaymin at an unlocked "Flower Paradise".
-------------------------------- Option 2 -------------------------------------
You can trade for these Pokemon online with someone else who has hacked it
into his or her possession. Through the Global Trading System, "GTS", you would
have to ask for a Darkrai or a Sheimi/Shaymin in exchange for whatever you were
willing to give in return.
There exist a couple problems here. For one, there is absolutely no way you can
tell if what you got was legitimately obtained, if that even concerns you.
Why would that concern you? For your information, many consider it ethically
wrong to trade a legitimately-acquired and useful Pokemon for one that came at
no significant cost or time spent. Why should you care? Ostracism is very
There are many people who fear gaming contact with those who play online with
illegitimate acquisitions or enhancements. Having played the very first online
console RPG, Phantasy Star Online, I can tell you right now that ostracism is a
very real possibility. People won't think twice before shunning you if they
believe you to be illegitimate or a cheater. People can and will be mean about
it, and that is something that could easily disadvantage you when trying to
play with others online.
By choosing this method for getting what you want, another thing could get in
your way. The Pokemon sent to you could have been hacked into his or her
possession incorrectly, possibly acting like a virus when it enters your game,
easily ruining it. There were many issues people had to deal with back in the
days of the Pokemon Red/Blue/Green/Yellow games when people started to meddle
too far into using Missingno., and it's alternate, 'M. The games of many all
over were screwed to high heaven due to capturing and simply having them in
possession. You, yourself, might run into a bad hack when trading online.
-------------------------------- Option 3 -------------------------------------
On your own initiative, you can hack these Pokemon into your possession.
Again, you ought to know what you are doing, and you should know beforehand the
possible repercussions that would result from such an action, most of them
This is problematic for many gamers. In many of these circumstances, you have
to give away time, effort, and maybe money. Not only that, but you can ruin
your game and possibly even your reputation. However, this should not be cause
A glitch has been discovered that will allow anyone to gain common access to
the locations where Darkrai and Sheimi/Shaymin reside. Now anyone with the
earlier Japanese versions can access Newmoon Island, where Darkrai resides, and
the "Flower Paradise", where Sheimi/Shaymin is, without any trouble whatsoever.
While people may still not trust you, you are legitimate enough in my book if
you caught the things yourself, regardless if you went through that silly Hotel
Dream quest, or whether or not you went to bother Professor Oak.
That's not the only thing you can do with this glitch. In actuality, you can go
almost anywhere you like in the game, but due to the dangerous nature of this
glitch, I have provided safe directions to specific locations of interest. In
addition to finding Pokemon normally not obtainable, if you would like to, you
can skip the entire Elite Four themselves. While it may arguably be easier to
beat them yourself, with this glitch you now have the option to skip them at
This isn't something that can be done as soon as you start up your game, as one
might have surmised. You have to be a considerable length into the game before
you can try to go after Darkrai and Sheimi/Shaymin--actually, you have to be at
the very end. This glitch begins at the Elite Four, which is the typical ending
point for all standard Pokemon adventures, or at least the story part of them.
In addition to having almost beaten your game, you will need a Pokemon that can
use "Fly" (so you can leave once the glitch is done with), the Explorer Kit
(so you can actually perform the glitch), and a Pokemon that knows "Surf" (for
the same reason as the kit).
Also, know beforehand that neither Pokemon will be a problem for you. Darkrai
will confront you at the level of 40, and Sheimi/Shaymin at the level of 30.
Most of Darkrai's attacks aren't a problem, but Darkrai's field-affecting
ability, "Bad Dreams", will cause all sleeping Pokemon to lose 1/8 of their Hit
Points (but not to Darkrai's benefit) every turn. Darkrai also knows the move
"Nightmare", allowing it to take away an additional 1/4 of the Hit Points of a
sleeping Pokemon. This gives Darkrai the capability of deducting 3/8 of your
own Pokemon's Hit Points every turn that it is asleep. With this in mind, you
will need to make sure that you can cure the status ailment of sleeping as
often as possible.
Sheimi's/Shaymin's abilities, although make it one of the few Pokemon that have
a base stat of 100 in all areas, are hardly threatening when you fight it. You
will have absolutely no problems dealing with this Pokemon.
If you plan to capture either of them, chances are you've used up the game's
one Master Ball that it gave you during the course of the story. Because of
this, make sure to bring as many Ultra Balls as possible to both encounters.
Don't, and you are jeopardizing your chances of success.
Why bring so much stock when you can save right in front of both of them? The
earlier Japanese versions of the game also sometimes had other issues with
them. In many instances, players were unable to fly away from Newmoon Island or
the "Flower Paradise", causing them to turn off their game in order to safely
lose their progress. I suggest that you also do this if such a thing ever
happens to you. Make sure that you can leave either location by flight before
I cannot stress enough that you bring sufficient stock along. This is not a
glitch you want to exploit more than you have to. An Ultra Ball will merely
increase your chances of capturing a Pokemon by two times, and a Great Ball by
1.5x. Bring even many Pokeballs, as I personally have gone through 99 Ultra
Balls, 99 Great Balls, and over 50 Pokeballs before successfully capturing a
rare Pokemon that was in the worst health condition possible. Even if you do
have a Master Ball, because both of these Pokemon aren't that powerful, I
suggest that you do not use it. Save any Master Ball you have for the higher-
leveled or more-elusive creatures that you might encounter in the future.
If, however, that you do not want to stock up on so many Pokeballs, you still
have another barely-legitimate option. Sometimes a person is not fond of using
up so much time in preparation, or is interested in the particulars of the
individuality (such as it's Nature or "IV") of a Pokemon. Those people can make
use of the Ditto Item-Duplication Glitch.
===Ditto Item Duplication Method by Buretsu===
Someone, known as "Buretsu", told me how to duplicate items using Ditto and
another Pokemon that knows the move "Thief" in a Double Battle.
1) Enter a Double Battle in your game.
2) Send out a Ditto with no item and a Pokemon with the item you want to
3) Have Ditto use Transform on the Pokemon with the item.
4) Switch the Pokemon that was stolen from with a Pokemon that can use Thief.
5) Use Thief on your own Ditto.
6) Win the battle.
Now the player obviously has two of that item. Thank you very much Buretsu!
 EXPLOITING THE GLITCH
Performing the glitch isn't a problem at all. In fact, it is a very, very easy
process. However, while the glitch is easy to execute, and can work for anyone
with an earlier Japanese version, it is still a dangerous glitch. If you make
it to either Darkrai or Sheimi/Shaymin, then you're safe. However, absolutely
every single itsy bitsy thing you do in between the first room of the Elite
Four and the "Flower Paradise" or Newmoon Island can be very dangerous.
Make sure you follow directions very correctly. People have lost valuable data
due to not performing the glitch exactly right. It is an easy process, but it
can also be safe if directions are followed. While I would not want to hurt
anyone's saved data, there are still those "completionists" out there that are
just as bummed out as I am that they'll probably never acquire either Darkrai
or Sheimi/Shaymin legitimately unless they go through with this.
Anyway, the first thing you do is travel to the room of the first fight of the
Elite Four. When you arrive there, walk back towards the door that locked
behind you when you entered. While looking towards that door, and as far as you
can walk up to it, have a Pokemon use "Surf". Crazy, huh? That's not supposed
to work, right? After all, it's ridiculous to surf on...concrete. However, for
whatever reason, your character will jump through the door onto that now-
You have now wound up past the game's normally travelable areas, past
boundaries and into a void. Again, don't worry. You can walk in throughout this
void as far as you please, but because this is a very dangerous glitch, you'll
need not to move an inch, but only in the right direction and distance! Don't
move yet! From here, you will have the ability to visit a number of places. I
have provided safe directions to three significant locations: Where Darkrai and
Sheimi/Shaymin are, and right in the middle of the Hall of Fame.
=- 1) Finding Darkrai -=
To access Darkrai, from where you should now be standing, and using the
Poketch's built-in Step Counter, walk 146 steps to the east. After that, walk
254 steps south, for a total of 400 steps.
If you feel you've messed up, you can either attempt to fly from where you are
to the game's other areas or retrace your steps if that does not work. The next
part is what can mess some people up very easily, as you will have to be
unusually still for a certain amount of time.
Now, use the Explorer Kit to go underground. This will cause you to save. When
you go underground, DON'T MOVE! Simply resurface. Guess where you are? You're
at Newmoon Island! The place looks a little messed up, but don't worry about
that. Maneuver yourself west around the glitchy visuals for a short distance,
or look at your Map Key Item to help clear it up, then afterwards travel north
into the woods. Floating right before you is the rare Pokemon Darkrai!
National Pokedex entry number: 491
Height: 4'11", or 1.5 meters
Weight: 111.3 lb., or 50.6 kilograms
Gender Ratio: (Genderless)
Base Happiness: 0
Species: Darkness Pokemon
Evolves into: Not Applicable
Evolves from: Not Applicable
Type: Dark (It's the very first pure Dark-type legendary Pokemon.)
Ability: Bad Dreams (Constantly deducts 1/8 of a sleeping Pokemon's HP)
Level found: 40
Catch Rate: 3/255 (The higher, the better; unfortunately for you this time)
I would like to congratulate you for having the rare opportunity to somewhat-
legitimately fight this Pokemon, and for most likely capturing it. You will not
be able to fly away from Newmoon Island, so simply take the boat on that island
to the mainland.
=- 2) Finding Sheimi/Shaymin -=
Sheimi/Shaymin is also acquired in the exact same way, but it's in a different
location. It is easier, when you start all over again, to reset your Poketch's
pedometer, as you can very easily get lost. You shouldn't have to needlessly
lose time, because again, this is a very easy glitch. After you wind up once
more in the void outside the door of that same room, walk 200 steps east.
Afterwards, walk 363 steps south, totaling to 563 steps taken. After that, walk
722 steps east, totaling to 1285 steps. From where you stand, walk 19 steps
west, for a total of 1304 steps.
Don't think you can shorten the 722 steps east by 19 to reach the same place--
trust me, it won't work. Make sure you go 722 steps east, and only then take 19
steps west. It is important that you follow directions for your safety. Again,
go underground with your Explorer Kit, and without moving, immediately
resurface. Look at your Map Key Item to help take care of the visual
glitchiness you are probably experiencing. You're now below the "Flower
Paradise" with Sheimi/Shaymin straight ahead of you.
===Faster Method by leebui===
Another person, known as "leebui", has given me directions as to how to get to
where Sheimi/Shaymin is, but in a much faster and simpler way. From right
outside that Elite Four door, walk 903 steps east. After that, walk south 363
steps, for only 1266 steps. That's 38 steps shorter, and two steps less! All
you do after this is go underground with the kit and resurface--you'll know
what comes next. Anyway, thank you very much leebui!
National Pokedex entry number: 492
Height: 0'8", or 0.2 meters
Weight: 4.6 lb., or 2.1 kilograms
Gender Ratio: (Genderless)
Base Happiness: 100
Species: Gratitude Pokemon
Evolves into: Not Applicable
Evolves from: Not Applicable
Type: Grass (And it's the very first pure Grass-type legendary Pokemon, too!)
Ability: Natural Cure (Every time this Pokemon is withdrawn from battle, all
malignant statuses are automatically cured, which of course won't affect
your battle with it.)
Level found: 30
Catch Rate: 45/255 (The higher, the better; this instance is in your favor.)
This fight will be a pushover. However, I still suggest that you bring with you
as many Ultra Balls, Great Balls, and Pokeballs that you think you'll need. You
don't want to risk more than you need to by saving at the "Flower Paradise"
unless you've checked beforehand that you have that option. Once you're done
with either capturing or killing it (if you have beaten the game, Sheimi/
Shaymin won't give you any problems), you can fly away at your earliest
convenience. If you can't, know that that sometimes can happen in some Japanese
games, so turn off your game and try it again.
I would like to congratulate you on successfully and legitimately capturing
either of these Pokemon. I'm sure it turned out to be fun and easy. Either
that, or at least much easier compared to the less rare and much tougher other
legendary hunts. However, there is one more way you can safely make good use of
this glitch, and that is by skipping the Elite Four.
=- 3) Skipping the Elite Four (by leebui) -=
Not only has leebui provided easier directions to Sheimi/Shaymin, but he has
also given me directions as to how to skip the Elite Four altogether, allowing
one to enter his or her team into the Hall of Fame! Before you begin, you will
need to return to the Elite Four and surf through that same door once again,
back into the void.
Once you are right below the door at the bottom of that room, travel around it
while hugging the walls until you are immediately above the door at the top of
that same room.
Reset your pedometer. From there, walk a total of 225 steps north. According to
leebui, you should "make sure you are on the 5th route" and that you should
"see 5 text boxes at the top left (part of the screen)".
Go underground with the kit. Here's the scary part--you'll have an error! Don't
worry, as according to leebui, "the game should reload the area!"
From where you wind up, go south 197 paces until you reach a "wall", for a
total of 422 steps. Go north just 1 step, totaling to 423 steps. From there, go
west 12 steps for a total of 435 steps registered on your Step Counter.
Next, go south 166 steps for a total of 601. At this point you ought to check
your map to make sure that you are now in the northwestern area. Continue south
for another 61 steps for a total of 662 on your pacer. Refresh your map ("the
key item one"). At this point, the waters near Full Moon Island ought to be to
the right from where you now stand.
Walk in the direction opposite of where the water is for only two steps. The
total number of steps registered in your pedometer should be 664.
Go underground again, but this time it should work! Resurface, making sure not
to move an inch while down there, just as before.
At this point you will be refreshing your Step Counter quite often. Refresh it
now. Walk 39 steps east. Refresh your pedometer and look through your item bag
(or anything that will cover the top screen completely) to make the water
Run 447 steps downwards, where you'll catch the sight of a Full Moon Island
intact. Refresh your step counter.
Now run east for 94 steps. At this point you should be near some trees.
Reset your step counter.
And finally, run north 35 steps and you'll wind up in the Hall of Fame
Congratulations for beating the game the "easy" way! Personally, I would rather
have taken the Elite Four on myself than go through all that! That may have
been the most difficult exploitation of the glitch to perform, but I bet that
you'll really have some fun showing your friends your Hall of Fame team,
consisting merely of that one little level 6 Pikachu that you brought along!
 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Have a question not addressed in the guide?
Here, I have provided answers to the some of the better questions that I've
been asked, as well as to many others that I've been most frequently
QUESTION: Is this glitch exploitable in the NTSC (American English) versions?
ANSWER: Unfortunately, no. Even the newer Japanese versions have this glitch
patched. Unless you have an Action Replay device, which would allow you to do
much more powerful things, you cannot surf through the door.
QUESTION: Does even that item duplication glitch work in the NTSC versions?
ANSWER: I'm sorry, but not. Nothing described in this guide is applicable to
anyone playing the game as released in America, Europe, or Australia. Again,
even if you have a newly-bought Japanese versions, it will not work. Only the
_early_ Japanese versions have either glitch.
QUESTION: I have wound up stuck in some water currents, so what do I do now?
ANSWER (By Korinku Rokushio): What you need to know first and foremost is that
you do not ever turn off your game at this point. Attempting to go underground
in order to relocate yourself will do you no good. As you are, stuck in the
water currents, use surf so that you are released from the glitch. Travel
south, below the pathway to Sheimi/Shaymin, until you reach land, where you
will hopefully have the opportunity to fly away. However, if you do otherwise
and land off to the side of the island (on a small, brown strip of land), I
believe that you have hurt yourself beyond repair.
QUESTION: Isn't there another way to do the item duplication glitch?
ANSWER: There are many different ways to go about dulicating items. The several
methods all have a Ditto, held items, and a Pokemon that can use "Thief" in
common. I felt that it was only necessary to list one of those various
versions, since they all did the same thing.
QUESTION: What should I do if I mess up in the black void?
ANSWER: At this point you do not want to risk much. As best as you are able,
try to retrace your steps to the starting point in front of that particular
door in front of the Elite Four. In addition, many people have had problems
flying away from Newmoon Island and the "Flower Paradise", so make sure before
you save at either locations that you have the ability to fly away. If not,
then turn off your game and go after them all over again.
QUESTION: Does the jump through the door count as a step?
ANSWER: No. In fact, I believe that while going after either Darkrai or
Sheimi/Shaymin, both start out going east, and when skipping the Elite Four
you will be starting out either west or east. You jump south through the door.
QUESTION: Can you go other places and do other things?
ANSWER: Definitely. You can go almost anywhere you like through the void, and
almost end up anywhere too. However, due to the dangerous nature of
exploiting this glitch, I suggest that you don't go anywhere you please unless
you know exactly what you're doing.
QUESTION: Can other rare Pokemon be found by exploiting this glitch?
ANSWER: Of course! Many have found other rare Pokemon such as Regigigas and
Kureseria/Cresselia, but anyone can get those by normal means. I have only
provided paths for the two Pokemon that the gamer unfairly has no other way of
obtaining. In addition, to make life slightly easier for some people, I have
provided directions to skip the Elite Four entirely, though only that.
QUESTION: Can Arceus/Aruseus be found using this glitch?
ANSWER: I'm sorry, but that Pokemon cannot be found by exploiting this glitch.
QUESTION: What happened to the Pal Park directions in your version 1.4?
ANSWER: I'm embarrassed to say this, but I made a mistake. The glitch allows
you to travel to many places, but I only wanted to provide directions to
places that would actually be useful, but not places that were accessible
otherwise. The Pal Park building can be visited at any time, but the actual
Park where you recapture your old Pokemon cannot, however. Because of this,
traveling there through exploiting the glitch actually does not benefit you in
any way. You are forced to get the National Pokedex regardless to be able to
make use of it.
 CONTACT INFORMATION
At this point you probably don't want to contact me asking questions about
this game, because since my Nintendo DS Lite has been mysteriously smashed, I
no longer can play the game myself. This means that I can no longer stay
familiar with the game, and thus, be able to answer any questions you might
have. Sorry about this. The best thing you can do if you're still confused over
something is go to the Pokemon Diamond or Pearl General Message Boards at
GameFAQs to ask your question(s) there, or consult other guides at GameFAQs.
If you still want to contact me knowing that, you can do so by e-mail.
However, please make sure that you've read the section of my guide that your
question(s) is(/are) concerned with. Furthermore, please read the Frequently
Asked Questions section of the guide to see if your question(s) has(/have) been
asked before as well.
You can contact me, L255J, by e-mail. If you would like to e-mail me, I'm
Sometimes it's difficult to write something all on your own, so I would like to
thank the following for helping me make this guide into what it is now:
Andrew "Drayano" Brooks: His "Legendary FAQ" at GameFAQs provided useful
information about Darkrai and Sheimi/Shaymin that I did not know of before.
Buretsu: Through the GameFAQs Pokemon Diamond message board, he provided me the
method of duplicating items in the game.
Jesse "Super Slash" Winstead: I was given helpful information from him
concerning the presentation of my guide.
Korinku Rokushio: Korinku e-mailed me information that would be very helpful
for those who have screwed up and looked for answers in the Frequently Asked
leebui: This person told me how to skip the Elite Four so that one could enter
his or her team into the Hall of Fame, in addition to giving me very helpful
information about the Pal Park. I give thanks to him also for his much faster
and much more simple directions to Sheimi/Shaymin.
Michael Volling, Jr.: This person pointed out an inconsistency in this guide
about Darkrai's special ability; particularly, how much it deducts.
Sean "Kirbix" D'Hoostelaere: He provided helpful critique concerning my guide's
The Original Crew: It took a great number of people to figure out this glitch.
Those people include TBF Bri 10 for finding the Elite Four Door Glitch,
Kabigon for finding Darkrai, as well as Kryptonite X, shadowboyz, nehckered,
teebs192, psp91, 5hadows, Tamer5, Bo916, victoryroadrage, Mystic_Gohan2k5, and
The_Fallen_User. The hard work of all these people has given many others the
chance to better enjoy their gaming experience. I cannot thank them all enough
for their hard work and effort!
TripleJumpMB: He also gave helpful critique about my guide.
 REVISION HISTORY
Current Version: Final
Current Version Date: 4/10/08
3/21/07 Guide, version 1.0 is constructed
3/22/07 Corrections made to increase safety while executing glitch, version 1.1
3/23/07 Inserted into guide more in-depth safety instructions, version 1.11
3/23/07 Created a Table of Contents and added dividers, version 1.2
3/25/07 Created a Frequently Asked Questions section, version 1.3
3/26/07 Legal section updated, version 1.31
4/03/07 Added directions through void to Pal Park, version 1.4
4/04/07 Replaced Pal Park directions with Hall of Fame directions, version 1.5
4/05/07 Inserted into guide leebui's Sheimi/Shaymin directions, version 1.51
4/05/07 Corrected information about Darkrai and Sheimi/Shaymin, version 1.52
4/07/07 Almost rewrote the entire guide, version 2.0
4/08/07 Corrected information about Darkrai, version 2.01
4/12/07 Legal section updated, version 2.02
4/16/07 Corrected serious help information in FAQ section, version 2.1
4/18/07 Corrected information about how to leave Newmoon Island, version 2.2
4/23/07 Credited many important people, version 2.21
5/10/07 Corrected minor information, version 2.22
5/11/07 Updated Frequently Asked Questions section, version 2.23
5/15/07 Minor correction made, version 2.24
5/22/07 Minor changes to the guide, version 2.25
4/10/08 Finalized Guide, sadly, version "Final"
 WHAT TO EXPECT IN FUTURE UPDATES
Nothing. Sorry about that. I came home from college one evening to find that my
Nintendo DS Lite had been broken in half by someone. Unfortunately, I don't
know who it was, and I have no plans to buy myself yet another Nintendo DS
Lite at this point.
This means that there's no way for me to confirm any corrections or suggestions
made by anyone through e-mail. Though I was patiently waiting for the rare
Pokemon to be released through promotions and then write about them in my
guide along with other material, obviously I cannot do that now.
Copyright 2007-2008 Harry Sam Shaw